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University Catalog

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

Bio Students

College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

The Department of Biological Sciences offers both undergraduate and graduate degree programs. At the undergraduate level, students are able to earn a Bachelor of Arts degree, a Bachelor of Science degree, or a Minor in Biological Sciences. Within the Bachelor of Science degree program students may focus their work by selecting one or more of the following concentrations: Biomedical Sciences, Cell and Molecular Biology, Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Ecology, Evolution and Conservation, Forensic Biology, or Microbiology; or students may choose to obtain the Bachelor of Science in General Biology.

At the Graduate level, students may earn a Master of Science degree in Biological Sciences and may also focus their work by pursuing a concentration in Ecology, Evolution, and Conservation or in Molecular and Cellular Biology within the Master of Science in Biological Sciences.

Special Features

  • The Biological Sciences Honors Program provides undergraduates with an in-depth research experience.
  • An Academic Achievement Certificate in Issues in Natural Resource Management may be earned with coursework beyond the B.S.
  • There are 18 laboratories specially designed to serve the various courses.
  • Support facilities include an entomology museum containing over 30,000 specimens; a vertebrate ectotherm museum containing several thousand specimens (fish, reptiles, and amphibians); a vertebrate endotherm museum containing over 1,900 mammal specimens and 2,500 bird specimens; a greenhouse containing a teaching collection of over 4,000 plants; an herbarium with an extensive collection of plants from western North America; and an arboretum.
  • Students have the opportunity to engage in research in a wide range of projects with individual faculty and through two University-recognized centers, each of which is composed of a cross-disciplinary interdepartmental group of faculty: CREST (the Center for Regional Environmental Science and Technology) and CIMERA (the Center for Interdisciplinary Molecular Biology Education, Research and Advancement).
  • The Sierra Nevada and the Pacific Coast are equally accessible from Sacramento, providing field biology students the opportunity to study an extraordinary number of varied habitats.
  • Sacramento State is one of the seven participating CSU campuses at Moss Landing Marine Laboratories (MLML) near Monterey.
  • Located in the State Capital, Sacramento State provides a unique opportunity for students to become involved with various State and Federal agencies through biological internships and part-time employment.
  • Public agencies, hospitals, clinics, and private health practices in the Sacramento area provide opportunities for students interested in the health care fields.
  • Opportunities for paid biology-related work experiences are available through participation in the Cooperative Education Program.

UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMS

Freshmen interested in the major are admitted as pre-Biological Science majors.

To change to the Biological Sciences major, pre-major students are required to complete the following course and grade requirements and submit a Decleration of Major form to the Biological Science Department Office along with transcript copies.

  1. Completion of the following lower division "pre-major" courses with a minimum "C-" or better. Only first or second attempt will be considered: BIO 1, BIO 2, CHEM 1A*, STAT 1, ENGL 5, (or equivalent).
  2. Overall GPA of 2.3 based on the most recent 30 graded semester units and on any of the courses listed above that were taken prior to the last 30 graded semester units.
  3. Minimum of 30 units completed at the college level.

*Although entrance to the Biological Sciences major requires a minimum grade of "C-" or better in CHEM 1A, eligibility for CHEM 1B requires a minimum passing grade of "C" or better in CHEM 1A.

Requirements - Bachelor of Arts Degree

Units required for Major: 62-66
Minimum total units required for the BA: 120

Courses in parentheses are prerequisites.

A. Required Lower Division Courses (37-41 units)

(5)

BIO 1

Biodiversity, Evolution, and Ecology

(5)

BIO 2

Cells, Molecules, and Genes (BIO 1 and CHEM 1A)

(5)

CHEM 1A

General Chemistry I (High school chemistry and college algebra; sufficient performance on the college algebra diagnostic test, or equivalent, or minimum grade of "C" in CHEM 4)

(5)

CHEM 1B

General Chemistry II (CHEM 1A with a passing grade of C or better)

(3)

CHEM 20

Organic Chemistry Lecture--Brief Course (CHEM 1B) OR BOTH

(3)

CHEM 24

Organic Chemistry Lecture I (CHEM 1B) AND

(3)

CHEM 124

Organic Chemistry Lecture II (CHEM 24 or instructor permission; Corequisite: CHEM 25 recommended)

(3)

MATH 26A

Calculus I for the Social and Life Sciences(MATH 11 or three years of high school mathematics which includes two years of algebra and one year of geometry; completion of ELM requirement and the Intermediate Algebra Diagnostic Test) OR

(4)

MATH 30

Calculus I (MATH 29 or four years of high school mathematics which includes two years of algebra, one year of geometry, and one year of mathematical analysis; completion of ELM requirement and Pre-Calculus Diagnostic Test)

(4)

PHYS 5A

General Physics: Mechanics, Heat, Sound (Recently completed three years of high school algebra and geometry; and a college course in algebra and trigonometry [MATH 9 recommended] for those having an inadequate mathematics background)

(4)

PHYS 5B

General Physics: Light, Electricity and Magnetism, Modern Physics (PHYS 5A or instructor permission)

(3)

STAT 1

Introduction to Statistics (MATH 9 or three years of high school mathematics which includes two years of algebra and one year of geometry; completion of ELM requirement and the Intermediate Algebra Diagnostic Test)

Notes:
  • Pre-health professional students should take the Chemistry and Math requirements as stated in the Pre-health Professional Program section of this catalog.
  • CHEM 24 and CHEM 124 may be taken in lieu of CHEM 20. (CHEM 124 is not counted toward the 24 upper division unit requirement in the major.)
B. Required Upper Division Courses (22 units)

(2)

BIO 100

Introduction to Scientific Analysis (BIO 1, BIO 2 and STAT 1; Biological Sciences majors only or instructor consent)

(3)

BIO 121

Molecular Cell Biology (BIO 1 and BIO 2)

(4)

BIO 139

General Microbiology (BIO 10 or both BIO 1 and BIO 2; CHEM 20 or CHEM 24)

(3)

BIO 160

General Ecology (BIO 10 or both BIO 1 and BIO 2; STAT 1)

(4)

BIO 184

General Genetics ( BIO 1 and BIO 2; declared Biological Sciences, Biochemistry or Chemistry major or instructor permission)

(3)

BIO 188

Evolution (BIO 184 or instructor permission

(3)

CHEM 161

General Biochemistry (CHEM 20 or CHEM 124; one year of biological science is recommended)

Note:

  • CHEM 160A and CHEM 160B may be taken in lieu of CHEM 161. Only three units of the package may be counted toward the upper division major requirement.
C. Elective Courses (3 units)

3 units from Elective List 1 (Structure and Function electives).

Note:
  • No more than 2 units from BIO 195, BIO 197A, BIO 197B, BIO 197C, BIO 199A, and BIO 199B combined can be applied to the Biological Sciences upper division major requirement.
  • BIO 106 is not acceptable toward a BA in Biological Sciences.
  • With approval, up to six units of upper division coursework from related fields may be applied as electives in the major.

Requirements - Bachelor of Science Degree

Units required for Major: 73-85, includes units of study in chosen concentration (see below).
Minimum total units required for the BS: 120-121

Courses in parentheses are prerequisites.

Note:
  • CHEM 24 and CHEM 124 are required instead of CHEM 20 for the Biomedical Sciences Concentration.
  • Additional units may be required to meet the Sacramento State foreign language requirement.
A. Required Lower Division Core Courses (37-41 units)

(5)

BIO 1

Biodiversity, Evolution, and Ecology

(5)

BIO 2

Cells, Molecules, and Genes (BIO 1 and CHEM 1A)

(5)

CHEM 1A

General Chemistry I (High school chemistry and college algebra; sufficient performance on the college algebra diagnostic test, or equivalent, or minimum grade of "C" in CHEM 4)

(5)

CHEM 1B

General Chemistry II (CHEM 1A with a passing grade of C or better)

(3)

CHEM 20

Organic Chemistry Lecture--Brief Course (CHEM 1B) OR BOTH

(3)

CHEM 24

Organic Chemistry Lecture I (CHEM 1B) AND

(3)

CHEM 124

Organic Chemistry Lecture II (CHEM 24 or instructor permission; Corequisite: CHEM 25 recommended)

(3)

MATH 26A

Calculus I for the Social and Life Sciences (MATH 11 or three years of high school mathematics which includes two years of algebra and one year of geometry; completion of ELM requirement and the Intermediate Algebra Diagnostic Test) OR

(4)

MATH 30

Calculus I (MATH 29 or four years of high school mathematics which includes two years of algebra, one year of geometry, and one year of mathematical analysis; completion of ELM requirement and Pre-Calculus Diagnostic Test)

(4)

PHYS 5A

General Physics: Mechanics, Heat, Sound
(Recently completed three years of high school algebra and geometry; and a college course in algebra and trigonometry [MATH 9 recommended] for those having an inadequate mathematics background)

(4)

PHYS 5B

General Physics: Light, Electricity, and Magnetism, Modern Physics (PHYS 5A or instructor permission)

(3)

STAT 1

Introduction to Statistics (MATH 9 or three years of high school mathematics which includes two years of algebra and one year of geometry; completion of ELM requirement and the Intermediate Algebra Diagnostic Test)

Notes:

  • Pre-health professional students should take the Chemistry and Math requirements as stated in the Pre-health Professional Program section of this catalog.
  • CHEM 24 and CHEM 124 may be taken in lieu of CHEM 20. (CHEM 124 is not counted toward the 36 upper division unit requirement in the major except in the Biomedical Sciences Concentration.)

B. Required Upper Division Core Courses (6 units)

(2)

BIO 100

Introduction to Scientific Analysis (BIO 1, BIO 2 and STAT 1; Biological Sciences majors only or instructor consent)

(4)

BIO 184

General Genetics (BIO 1 and BIO 2; declared Biological Sciences, Biochemistry or Chemistry major or instructor permission)

Additional Requirements for Concentrations

Units required: 30-38

General Biology - Concentration (30 units)

The general biology concentration is intended to give students a broad training in the Biological Sciences and an opportunity to explore a wide range of elective courses. It also provides necessary preparation for most graduate programs and selected entry level technical positions in industry and government.  The BS in Biological Sciences meets requirements leading to the Biology Subject Matter Competency Teaching Credential (with three supplemental geoscience and environmental studies courses) and also satisfies requirements for admission to health professional schools (with additional coursework in Math and Chemistry).

A. Required courses (16 units)

(3)

BIO 121

Molecular Cell Biology (BIO 1 and BIO 2)

(4)

BIO 139

General Microbiology (BIO 10 or both BIO 1 and BIO 2; CHEM 20 or CHEM 24)

(3)

BIO 160

General Ecology (BIO 10 or both BIO 1 and BIO 2; STAT 1)

(3)

BIO 188

Evolution (BIO 184 or instructor permission

(3)

CHEM 161

General Biochemistry (CHEM 20 or CHEM 124; one year of biological science is recommended)

Note: CHEM 160A and CHEM 160B may be taken in lieu of CHEM 161. Only three units of the package may be counted toward the upper division requirement.

B. Elective Courses (14 units)
  • 3 units from Elective List 1 (Structure and Function electives).
  • Additional upper division elective courses selected in consultation with an advisor to total 14 total upper division elective units.
Biomedical Sciences - Concentration (34 units)

The concentration in Biomedical Sciences is designed to prepare students for graduate study in the anatomical and physiological sciences or for health professional training (Medical, Veterinary, Physical Therapy, Nursing, Pharmacy, or other health professions).

Required Courses (21 units)

(4)

BIO 22

Introductory Human Anatomy (BIO 1, BIO 2 or BIO 10 )

(3)

BIO 121

Molecular Cell Biology (BIO 1 and BIO 2)

(4)

BIO 131

Systemic Physiology (CHEM 1B or CHEM 6B and BIO 1 or BIO 2 or BIO 10 or BIO 22)

(4)

BIO 139

General Microbiology (BIO 10 or both BIO 1 and BIO 2; CHEM 20 or CHEM 24)

(3)

CHEM 25

Organic Chemistry Laboratory (CHEM 24, CHEM 124; CHEM 124 may be taken concurrently)

(3)

CHEM 161

General Biochemistry (CHEM 20 or CHEM 124; one year of biological science is recommended)

Note: Students in Biomedical Sciences concentration must take CHEM 24 and CHEM 124 instead of CHEM 20.

B. Elective Courses (13 units)
  • 3 units from Elective List 1 (Structure and Function electives).
  • 3 units from Elective List 2 (Ecology, Evolution, and Biodiversity electives).
  • Additional elective selected in consultation with an advisor to total 13 upper division elective units.
Cell and Molecular Biology - Concentration (35 units)

The concentration in Cell and Molecular Biology is designed for students interested in advanced studies at the Masters or Ph.D. level, students pursuing career working in biotechnology, or pre-health professions majors pursuing a fundamental understanding of the bimolecular basis of disease. Students completing the degree requirements for the Cell and Molecular Biology concentration also fulfills the requirements for a minor in Chemistry.

A. Required courses (25 units)

(3)

BIO 121

Molecular Cell Biology (BIO 1 and BIO 2)

(4)

BIO 180

Advanced Molecular Biology (BIO 121 and BIO 184)

(4)

BIO 187

Advanced Cell Biology (BIO 121 and BIO 184)

(3)

BIO 188

Evolution (BIO 184 or instructor permission)

(1)

CHEM 20L

Introductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory (CHEM 20 maybe taken concurrently)

(4)

CHEM 31

Quantitative Analysis (CHEM 1B)

(3)

CHEM 161

General Biochemistry (CHEM 20 or CHEM 124; one year of biological science is recommended)

(3)

CHEM 162

General Biochemistry Laboratory (CHEM 31; CHEM 160A or CHEM 161 either may be taken concurrently; ENGL 20 or an equivalent second semester composition course)

Note: CHEM 160A and CHEM 160B may be taken in lieu of CHEM 161. Only three units of the package may be counted toward the upper division major requirement. CHEM 162 is included in the 36 upper division unit requirement for this concentration.

B. Elective Courses (10 units)

Students must complete one of the following courses:

(3)

BIO 126

Comparative Vertebrate Morphology (BIO 1 and BIO 2)

(4)

BIO 127

Developmental Biology (BIO 2)

(4)

BIO 128

Plant Anatomy and Physiology (BIO 1 and BIO 2)

(4)

BIO 131

Systemic Physiology (CHEM 1B or CHEM 6B and BIO 1 or BIO 2 or BIO 10 or BIO 22)

  • 3 units from Elective List 2 (Ecology, Evolution, and Biodiversity)
  • Additional upper division electives chosen in consultation with an advisor to total 10 units.
Clinical Laboratory Sciences - Concentration (35 units)

The curriculum in Clinical Laboratory Sciences meets the undergraduate coursework requirements of the State of California for eligibility to take a Clinical Laboratory Scientist (CSL) licensure examination. Eligibility to take a licensure examination also requires a one year (CLS) internship training program at a state approved clinical laboratory. Completion of BS degree requirements in the Clinical Laboratory Sciences concentration does not guarantee admission to a CLS internship training program. Information on admission criteria and application procedures for the various CLS internship training programs throughout the state is available through California Association for Medical Laboratory Technology (CAMLT) at their Web site http://www.camlt.org/cls/.

A. Required courses (35 units)

(3)

BIO 121

Molecular Cell Biology (BIO 1 and BIO 2)

(3)

BIO 124

Clinical Hematology (CHEM 161 and BIO 184)

(4)

BIO 131

Systemic Physiology (CHEM 1B or CHEM 6B and BIO 1 or BIO 2 or BIO 10 or BIO 22)

(4)

BIO 139

General Microbiology (BIO 10 or both BIO 1 and BIO 2; CHEM 20 or CHEM 24)

(4)

BIO 144

Pathogenic Bacteriology (BIO 139)

(3)

BIO 149A

Immunology (BIO 121, BIO 139, BIO 184; CHEM 161)

(1)

BIO 149B

Immunology and Serology Laboratory (BIO 139 and BIO 149A)

(3)

BIO 152

Human Parasitology (BIO 1 and BIO 2)

(4)

CHEM 31

Quantitative Analysis (CHEM 1B)

(3)

CHEM 161

General Biochemistry (CHEM 20 or CHEM 124; one year of biological science is recommended)

(3)

CHEM 162

General Biochemistry Laboratory (CHEM 31; CHEM 160A or CHEM 161 either may be taken concurrently; ENGL 20 or an equivalent second semester composition course)

Notes:

  • CHEM 162 can be included in the 36 upper division unit requirement for this concentration.
  • A minor in Chemistry may be attained if either CHEM 20L or CHEM 25 is taken.
  • CHEM 160A and CHEM 160B may be taken in lieu of CHEM 161. Only three units of the package may be counted toward the upper division requirement.

Ecology, Evolution, and Conservation - Concentration (30 units)

The concentration in Ecology, Evolution, and Conservation is designed for students interested in wildlife management conservation biology, or pursuing graduate study in ecological and evolutionary approaches in the Biological Sciences. By choosing the Conservation Biology advising track, students get necessary training for a career working with local, state, or federal agencies as a biologist or environmental scientist. The Ecology and Evolution advising track is designed to prepare students for graduate study in the Biological Sciences.

A. Required Courses (14 units)

(3)

BIO 160

General Ecology (BIO 10 or both BIO 1 and BIO 2; STAT 1)

(3)

BIO 167

Quantitative Methods in Biology (STAT 1 and BIO 100 or graduate status)

(4)

BIO 178

Molecular Ecology (BIO 184; Corequisite: BIO 188)

(1)

BIO/ENVS 186B

Ecological and Environmental Issues Seminar (BIO 10 or both BIO 1 and BIO 2)

(3)

BIO 188

Evolution (BIO 184 or instructor permission)

B. Elective Courses (16 units)
  • 3 units from Elective List 1 (Structure and Function electives).
  • 9 units from Elective List 2. At least one course must be from Part A and one course from Part B (each course must be a minimum of 3 units).
  • Additional upper division elective courses selected in consultation with an advisor to total 16 upper division elective units.

Forensic Biology - Concentration (38 units)

The curriculum in Forensic Biology is designed to prepare students for careers as criminalist specializing in the analysis and interpretation of serological and DNA evidence. This curriculum meets the educational requirements for entry level career positions with city, county, and federal agencies. Students selecting this concentration are urged to pursue internship opportunities (BIO 195), such as those available through the Sacramento County Coroner's Office, and/or directed research (BIO 199A or BIO 199B) with a faculty member in Biological Sciences or Chemistry who utilizes molecular biology techniques and instrumentation. Students completing the requirements for a concentration in Forensic Biology also fulfill the requirements for a minor in Chemistry.

A. Required courses (32 units)

(3)

BIO 121

Molecular Cell Biology (BIO 1, BIO 2)

(3)

BIO 150

Forensic Biology (BIO 1, BIO 2 and BIO 184)

(2)

BIO 151

Advanced Laboratory Techniques in Forensic Biology (BIO 150 or instructor permission)

(4)

BIO 180

Advanced Molecular Biology (BIO 121 and BIO 184)

(1)

CHEM 20L

Introductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory (CHEM 20 maybe taken concurrently)

(4)

CHEM 31

Quantitative Analysis (CHEM 1B)

(3)

CRJ 4

General Investigative Techniques

(3)

CRJ 154

Introduction to Physical Evidence. (CRJ 102; restricted to declared majors or chair permission)

(3)

CHEM 161

General Biochemistry (CHEM 20 or CHEM 124; one year of biological science is recommended)

(3)

CHEM 162

General Biochemistry Laboratory (CHEM 31; CHEM 160A or CHEM 161 either may be taken concurrently; ENGL 20 or an equivalent second semester composition course)

One of the following courses:

(3)

CRJ 112

Gangs and Threat Groups

(3)

CRJ 114

Sexual Offenses and Offenders

(3) CRJ 118 Drug Abuse and Criminial Behavior
B. Elective Courses (6 units)
  • 3 units from Elective List 1 (Structure and Function electives)
  • 3 units from Elective List 2 (Ecology, Evolution, and Biodiversity electives)

Notes:

  • CHEM 162 can be included in the 36 upper division unit requirement for this concentration.
  • CHEM 160A and CHEM 160B may be taken in lieu of CHEM 161. Only three units of the package may be counted toward the upper division requirement.
  • Students with a declared concentration in Forensic Biology do not need to take CRJ 1, CRJ 2 or CRJ 102 as prerequisites for the CRJ courses required in this concentration.

Microbiology - Concentration (35 units)

The concentration in Microbiology is designed to prepare students for entry level technical positions in the industry and graduate programs in Microbiology leading to careers in research and teaching. This curriculum meets the educational requirements for various entry level career positions for biotechnology, environmental, pharmaceutical, wastewater treatment, and agricultural areas of microbiology. Concentration includes a minor in Chemistry.

A. Required courses (28 units)

(3)

BIO 121

Molecular Cell Biology (BIO 1, BIO 2)

(4)

BIO 139

General Microbiology (BIO 10 or both BIO 1 and BIO 2; CHEM 20 or CHEM 24)

(3)

BIO 143

General Virology (BIO 139, CHEM 161)

(3)

BIO 145

The Diversity of Microorganisms (BIO 139)

(4)

BIO 180

Advanced Molecular Biology (BIO 121 and BIO 184)

(1)

CHEM 20L

Introductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory (CHEM 20 maybe taken concurrently)

(4)

CHEM 31

Quantitative Analysis (CHEM 1B)

(3)

CHEM 161

General Biochemistry (CHEM 20 or CHEM 124; one year of biological science is recommended)

(3)

CHEM 162

General Biochemistry Laboratory (CHEM 31; CHEM 160A or CHEM 161 either may be taken concurrently; ENGL 20 or an equivalent second semester composition course)

Notes:

  • CHEM 162 can be included in the 36 upper division unit requirement for this concentration.
  • CHEM 160A and CHEM 160B may be taken in lieu of CHEM 161. Only three units of the package may be counted toward the upper division requirement.
B. Elective Courses (7 units)

7 upper division units chosen in consultation with an advisor from Elective List 3 or Elective List 4. BIO 124 and BIO 125 cannot be taken to fulfill the elective requirements for the Microbiology Concentration.

Elective Lists:

Elective List 1: Structure and Function Electives

(3)

BIO 104

Physiology of Human Reproduction (BIO 1, BIO 2 or BIO 10)

(4)

BIO 122

Advanced Human Anatomy (BIO 22)

(3)

BIO 123

Neuroanatomy (BIO 22)

(3)

BIO 126

Comparative Vertebrate Morphology (BIO 1 and BIO 2)

(4)

BIO 127

Developmental Biology (BIO 2)

(4)

BIO 128

Plant Anatomy and Physiology (BIO 1 and BIO 2)

(3)

BIO 130

Histology (BIO 22)

(4)

BIO 131

Systemic Physiology (CHEM 1B or CHEM 6B and BIO 1 or BIO 2 or BIO 10 or BIO 22)

(3)

BIO 132

Neurophysiology (BIO 131 or both BIO 25 and BIO 26)

(3)

BIO 133

Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Renal Physiology (BIO 131)

Elective List 2: Ecology, Evolution, and Biodiversity
Part A: Biodiversity Electives

(3)

BIO 103

Plants and Civilization (BIO 10 or equivalent)

(4)

BIO 112

Plant Taxonomy (BIO 1 and BIO 2)

(3)

BIO 145

The Diversity of Microorganisms (BIO 139)

(3)

BIO 152

Human Parasitology (BIO 1 and BIO 2)

(4)

BIO 157

General Entomology (BIO 1 and BIO 2)

(3)

BIO 162

Ichthyology: The Study of Fishes (BIO 1 and BIO 2)

(3)

BIO 164

Amphibians and Reptiles: An Introduction to Herpetology (BIO 1 and BIO 2)

(3)

BIO 166

Ornithology (BIO 1 and BIO 2)

(4)

BIO 168

Mammalogy (BIO 1 and BIO 2)

Part B: Ecology and Evolution Electives

(3)

BIO 113

Evolution and Speciation in Flowering Plants (BIO 1 and BIO 2)

(3)

BIO 118

Natural Resource Conservation (BIO 1 and BIO 2)

(3)

BIO 160

General Ecology (BIO 10 or both BIO 1 and BIO 2; STAT 1)

(3)

BIO 169

Animal Behavior (BIO 1 and BIO 2)

(3)

BIO 173

Principles of Fisheries Biology (BIO 160 and STAT 1)

(3)

BIO/ENVS 175

Aquatic Pollution Assessment (BIO 160, CHEM 4 or concurrent enrollment or instructor permission)

(3)

BIO 179

Principles of Wildlife Management (BIO 160, BIO 166 and BIO 168 or instructor permission)

(1)

BIO/ENVS 186B

Ecological and Environmental Issues Seminar (BIO 10 or both BIO 1 and BIO 2)

(3)

BIO 188

Evolution (BIO 184 or instructor permission)

Elective List 3: Cell and Molecular Biology Electives

(3)

BIO 121

Molecular Cell Biology (BIO 1, BIO 2)

(4)

BIO 139

General Microbiology (BIO 10 or both BIO 1 and BIO 2; CHEM 20 or CHEM 24)

(3)

BIO 143

General Virology (BIO 139, CHEM 161)

(3)

BIO 149A

Immunology (BIO 121, BIO 139, BIO 184; CHEM 161)

(3)

BIO 150

Forensic Biology (BIO 1, BIO 2 and BIO 184)

(2)

BIO 151

Advanced Laboratory Techniques in Forensic Biology (BIO 150 or instructor permission)

(3)

BIO/FACS 170

Advanced Nutrition and Metabolism (CHEM 161, FACS 113 or instructor permission)

(4)

BIO 178

Molecular Ecology (BIO 184; Corequisite: BIO 188)

(4)

BIO 180

Advanced Molecular Biology (BIO 121 and BIO 184)

(2)

BIO 183

Cancer Biology (BIO 121 and BIO 184)

(3)

BIO 185

Topics in Biology (BIO 10 or both BIO 1 and BIO 2; CHEM 20)

(1)

BIO 186A

Cell and Molecular Biology Seminar (BIO 10 or both BIO 1 and BIO 2)

(4)

BIO 187

Advanced Cell Biology (BIO 121 and BIO 184)

Elective List 4: Clinical Laboratory Science and Infectious Disease Electives

(3)

BIO 124*

Clinical Hematology (BIO 184 and CHEM 161)

(1)

BIO 125

Body Fluid Analysis (BIO 161 or instructor permission)

(3)

BIO 134

Medical Mycology (BIO 139)

(3)

BIO 140**

Medical Microbiology and Emerging Infectious Diseases (BIO 39 or BIO 139)

(4)

BIO 144

Pathogenic Bacteriology (BIO 139)

(1)

BIO 149B

Immunology and Serology Laboratory (BIO 139 and BIO 149A)

(3)

BIO 152

Human Parasitology (BIO 1 and BIO 2)

(3)

HLSC 148*

Epidemiology (STAT 1 or instructor permission)

*Cannot be counted for credit in the Microbiology concentration.
**Students may not receive credit for both BIO 140 and BIO 144. Cannot be counted fro credit in the Clinical Laboratory Sciences concentration.
***Required for Public Health Microbiology Traineeship.

Cooperative Education Program (Work Experience)

Biology majors can participate in the University's Cooperative Education Program. This program provides biology-related, paid, off-campus work experience in government agencies or private industry. The experience can enhance the student's employment prospects upon graduation. Participants in this program will complete at least one six-month period. During the work period, the participant generally will not attend classes on the Sacramento State campus but will enroll in BIO 194, Biology-Related Work Experience. (BIO 194 units do not replace the curricular requirements of the Biological Sciences degree programs.) Students interested in this program should contact the Biological Sciences Department or the campus Cooperative Education Program Office for further information.

Requirements - Honors Program (with either BA or BS Degree Program)

Biological Sciences Honors Program provides undergraduate students with an in-depth research experience. An undergraduate research experience is highly recommended for entry into many graduate and professional programs. Culmination of the Honors Program will consist of an undergraduate thesis and an undergraduate seminar. To enter this program, students must have an overall GPA of 3.25 and a minimum of 3.0 GPA in biology courses with at least 15 units of biology and have completed at least 6 units of upper division biology courses, excluding BIO 106, BIO 195, BIO 197A, BIO 197B, BIO 197C, BIO 199A, and BIO 199B.

The curriculum of the Honors Program is designed to be coupled with the BA or BS degree programs. The Honors Program requires the following courses, completed with a grade of "B" or better, for the BA or BS degree:

(2)

BIO 198A

Honors Proseminar and Research (Open only to honors students in Biological Sciences as defined above)

(2)

BIO 198B

Honors Research and Seminar (BIO 198A)

Requirements - Minor

Units required for Minor: 20 units

The minor in Biological Sciences is designed to provide students in other majors with the opportunity to broaden their exposure to and understanding of the biological sciences. The minor complements several majors that require coursework in biological sciences, including Chemistry, Nursing, Environmental Studies, Health Science, Kinesiology, and Family and Consumer Sciences.

The minor requires 20 units. The 20 units must include a minimum of 10 upper division units at least one of the upper division courses must have a laboratory component. Three units of biochemistry may be counted toward the minor. Six upper division units must be earned in residence. No more than two units of BIO 186A, BIO/ENVS 186B, BIO 194, BIO 195, BIO 197A, BIO 197B, BIO 197C, BIO 199A, and BIO 199B may be counted toward the minor.

Note: All prerequisites for all courses will be enforced.

Requirements - Subject Matter Program (Pre-Credential Preparation)

Biological Sciences majors who intend to pursue a teaching credential must complete the science subject matter program which is described in this catalog. Successful completion of this program fulfills the subject matter competence program in the College of Education. The Single Subject Credential in General Science/Biology allows graduates to teach all four of the sciences (Geoscience, Biology, Chemistry, and Physics) at the General Science level in 7-12 grades, and Biology at an advanced level in high school.

Currently there is a great need for K-12 teachers educated in science. Changes in State Board of Education Standards and increasing interest in Biological Sciences have created significant demands for students with this credential. Biological Sciences majors who have an interest in teaching should contact one of the credential advisors in the Biological Sciences Department, Melanie Loo.

Note: Due to policy changes from the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing and the federal No Child Left Behind mandate, the Science Subject Matter program was under review at the time of this catalog and is subject to revision. As a result, it is important to consult a credential advisor for current details.

Requirements - Certificate - Issues in Natural Resource Management

Units required for Certificate: 15, in addition to requirements for BS (see below)

The Academic Achievement Certificate in Issues in Natural Resource Management is designed to provide an interdisciplinary perspective on the conflicts, controversies, and biopolitical issues that natural resource biologists must deal with in their careers, and to introduce students to the non-biological considerations that influence decision making processes in natural resource utilization and management.

A minimum of 15 units selected from the following list in addition to requirements for the BS in Biological Sciences with a concentration in Biological Conservation. The certificate may also be awarded to students completing the BS in General Biology with the approval of the Biological Conservation advisors.

Courses in parentheses are prerequisites.

(3)

ECON 120

Economics and Environmental Degradation

(3)

ECON 123

Resource Economics (ECON 1B)

(3)

ENVS 110

Contemporary Environmental Issues

(3)

ENVS 112

International Environmental Problems (GWAR certification before Fall 09; or WPJ score of 80+; or 3-unit placement in ENGL 109M/W; or 4-unit placement in ENGL 109M/W and co-enrollment in ENGL 109X; or WPJ score 70/71 and co-enrollment in ENGL 109X)

(3)

ENVS/GOVT 128

Environment and the Law (ENVS 110, ENVS 111 or instructor permission)

(3)

GEOG 161

California's Water Resources

(3)

GEOL 140

Geology and the Environment

(3)

GOVT 170

Public Policy Development (GOVT 1 or equivalent, and GWAR certification before Fall 09; or WPJ score of 80+; or 3-unit placement in ENGL 109M/W; or 4-unit placement in ENGL 109M/W and co-enrollment in ENGL 109X; or WPJ score 70/71 and co-enrollment in ENGL 109X)

GRADUATE PROGRAM

The graduate programs in Biological Sciences lead to either a Master of Arts (MA) or a Master of Science (MS) degree and provides an opportunity for students to receive advanced training and to pursue independent investigations in particular fields of biology. It allows students to upgrade their qualifications for educational advancement to doctoral programs or for professional advancement in teaching, laboratory work, or fieldwork. The MA degree requires the completion of a project which is a Grant Proposal, unless the student is in the Stem Cell Concentration which requires an Internship Project Report. The MS degree requires completion of a thesis which has concentrations in Ecology, Evolution and Conservation and in Molecular and Cellular Biology so as to provide advanced training and research experience in these fields.

All students are required to complete a project or thesis involving field, laboratory, or literature research. The project or thesis research may be conducted on campus with a biology faculty member or at an off-campus location. In either case, the student's research must make a new contribution to the field of biology. If the research is conducted off campus, a biology faculty member must be identified as the student's graduate advisor. Following admission to the program, students are advised by a temporary graduate advisor or by the faculty member who has agreed to supervise the student in their project/thesis research. Students should plan their academic programs in consultation with a graduate advisor as early as possible, preferably prior to enrollment in the program.

For additional information regarding the Biological Sciences Graduate Program, students may contact the Biological Sciences Department Office, Biological Sciences website (http://www.csus.edu/bios/), or consult the Biological Sciences Graduate Program Handbook, available through the Department's Web site.

Graduate Admission Requirements

Admission as a classified graduate student to the MA or MS program in Biological Sciences requires:

  • a baccalaureate degree;
  • completion of a major in biological sciences or closely related field; or completion of 24 units of upper division biological sciences courses or courses in closely related fields, each of which must be passed with a "C-" or better;
  • a minimum GPA of 2.75 in all biology courses and a minimum GPA of 3.0 in upper division biology courses;
  • GRE General Test scores;
  • a faculty member who has agreed to serve as their graduate advisor;
  • two letters of recommendation from persons qualified to judge the applicant's potential for successful graduate study; and
  • a statement of purpose.

It is important to note that meeting all admission requirements does not guarantee acceptance into the graduate program. Students who have deficiencies in admission requirements that can be removed by specified additional preparation, or who have not been accepted by a graduate advisor, may be admitted with conditionally classified graduate status. Admission as a conditionally classified graduate student does not guarantee fully classified status. Fully classified graduate status is conferred when all deficiencies identified at the time of admission are removed and a biology faculty member has agreed to serve as their thesis advisor. Any deficiencies in admissions requirements will be noted on a written response to the admission application.

Graduate Admission Procedures

Applicants must complete a university application by the posted application deadline date for the term applying. :

  • an online application for admission; and
  • two sets of official transcripts from all colleges and universities attended, other than Sacramento State.

For more admissions information and application deadlines, please visit http://www.csus.edu/gradstudies/.

In addition, all prospective graduate students must submit the following application materials directly to the Department of Biological Sciences:

  • an online departmental application for admission;
  • one set of unofficial transcripts from all colleges and universities attended, other than Sacramento State;
  • GRE General Test scores (NOTE: GRE General Test scores will be accepted after the application deadline but only if the test was taken prior to the deadline);
  • two letters of recommendation; and
  • a statement of purpose.

Departmental applications for admission are due February 1. There is currently no general call for admission for students to begin in the spring semester. However a student may petition the department to begin the spring. Please contact your potential graduate advisor (i.e., a faculty member in your area of interest) to discuss this option. Approximately eight to ten weeks after receipt of all items listed above, a decision regarding admission will be mailed to the applicant.

Advancement to Candidacy

The Advancement to Candidacy process serves to ensure that a student is qualified for and making good progress toward successfully completing the Master's degree. Each classified graduate student must file an application for Advancement to Candidacy, indicating a proposed program of graduate study. This procedure should begin as soon as the classified graduate student has:

  • removed any deficiencies in admission requirements;
  • completed at least 12 units in the graduate program with a minimum 3.0 GPA, including at least one course at the 200-level;
  • begun a preliminary study for the thesis or project; and
  • taken the Writing Placement for Graduate Students (WPG) or taken a Graduate Writing Intensive (GWI) course in their discipline within the first two semesters of coursework at California State University, Sacramento or secured approval for a WPG waiver.

An Application for Advancement to Candidacy forms are available in the Office of Graduate Studies Web site and the Department of Biological Sciences Web site. The student fills out the form after planning a degree program in consultation with his/her Biological Sciences graduate advisor. After approval by the Biological Sciences Graduate Committee and the student's thesis committee, the completed form is returned to the Office of Graduate Studies for approval.

Requirements - Master of Arts Degree

Units required for MA: 30 includes units required in areas of concentration.
Minimum GPA: 3.0

The MA degree requires completion of 30 units of coursework with a minimum 3.0 GPA. The 30 units must include a minimum of 18 units of 200-level courses. No units from BIO 106, BIO 194, BIO 195, BIO 197A, BIO 197B, BIO 197C, BIO 198A, BIO 198B, BIO 199A or BIO 199B are acceptable toward the master's degree. No more than 2 units of BIO 502 may be applied toward the 30 unit requirement.

Each student who receives a Master of Arts degree from the Department of Biological Sciences must submit a written project based on a research problem in biology under the supervision of a graduate advisor. A project can be based on either of the following:

  • Grant Proposal: a research proposal in the format required by a state or federal granting agency (e.g., National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health) based on a novel hypothesis that addresses a biological problem; OR
  • Internship Project Report: a project report on the student’s internship experience.

All requirements for the Master of Arts degree must be completed within seven (7) years starting from the time the first course is used to meet the master’s degree requirements.

Courses in parentheses are prerequisites.

No Concentration

A. Required Core Courses (7 units)

(2)

BIO 220

Introduction to Scientific Inquiry

(1)

BIO 294 series course

Seminar

(2)

BIO 299

Problems in Biological Sciences

(2-3) Select one of the following:

 

BIO 221A

Cell & Molecular Methods and Techniques (BIO 220; may be taken concurrently) OR

 

BIO 221B

Methods in Ecology, Evolution, and Conservation (BIO 167; BIO 220 may be taken concurrently) OR

 

BIO 221C

Exploration of Biological Methodology

B. Culminating Requirement (2 units)

(2)

BIO 502

Master's Project (Advancement to candidacy and chair permission of his/her committee)

C. Additional Requirements (20-21)

Approved electives in Biological Sciences or supporting fields. Electives must be selected in consultation with the graduate advisor and approved at the Advancement to Candidacy meeting. Up to six units of upper division (100-level) coursework taken as a graduate student in the program may be applied to the MA degree. Up to an additional 2 units of BIO 299 may be applied to meet coursework requirements.

Stem Cell - Concentration

Courses in parentheses are prerequisites.

A. Required Core Courses (22 units)

(2)

BIO 220

Introduction to Scientific Inquiry

(2)

BIO 221A

Cell & Molecular Methods and Techniques (BIO 220; may be taken concurrently) OR

(3)

BIO 222

Molecular Biology (BIO 184, CHEM 161)

(3)

BIO 224

Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics (BIO 184, BIO 222 and graduate status or instructor permission)

(1)

BIO 225

Stem Cell Biology and Manufacturing Practices (Graduate status and instructor permission)

(2)

BIO 293

Research Conference (Department Chair and instructor permission)

(1)

BIO 294A

Seminar in Molecular and Cellular Biology (Student must be a Biology major at the master's level to enroll in this class and/or have instructor permission)

(8)

BIO 299

Problems in Biological Sciences

B. Culminating Requirement (2 units)

(2)

BIO 502

Master's Project (Advancement to candidacy and chair permission of his/her committee)

C. Additional Requirements (6 units)

Select from the following:

 

BIO 223

Human Molecular Genetics (BIO 139, BIO 184, CHEM 161

 

BIO 245

Host Pathogen Interactions (BIO 121, BIO 139, BIO 184)

 

BIO 247

Contemporary Topics in Immunology (BIO 149A or instructor permission)

 

BIO 282

Evolution

 

CHEM 230

Separation Methods in Chemistry

 

CHEM 240

Advanced Instrumentation Laboratory (CHEM 24, CHEM 25, CHEM 124 or instructor permission)

 

CHEM 145/245

Applications of Computational Chemistry (CHEM 140A and CHEM 140B, or CHEM 142 or instructor permission)

 

CHEM 260

Protein Biochemistry (One semester biochemistry)

 

CHEM 261

Nucleic Acid Chemistry (Undergraduate course in biochemistry)

Requirements - Master of Science Degree

Units required for MS: 30 includes units required in areas of concentration.
Minimum GPA: 3.0

The MS degree requires completion of 30 units of coursework with a minimum 3.0 GPA. The 30 units must include a minimum of 18 units of 200-level seminar courses. No units from BIO 106, BIO 194, BIO 195, BIO 197A, BIO 197B, BIO 197C, BIO 198A, BIO 198B, BIO 199A or BIO 199B are acceptable toward the master's degree. No more than 10 units of BIO 299 and BIO 500 may be applied toward the 30 unit requirement.

Each student who receives a Master's of Science degree from the Department of Biological Sciences must submit a thesis based on original research in biology. A thesis can be based on either of the following sources of data:

  • data generated by the student's original research in which the student performs the fieldwork or laboratory experiments and/or
  • data obtained from sources other than the student's own fieldwork or laboratory experiments, provided the data are analyzed in an original way.

The use of data must result in an original contribution to the problem being investigated.

All requirements for the Master's degree must be completed within seven (7) years starting from the time the first course is used to meet the master’s degree requirements.

Courses in parentheses are prerequisites.

A. Required Core Courses (10 units)

(2)

BIO 220

Introduction to Scientific Inquiry

(2)

BIO 294 series course

Seminar

(6)

BIO 299

Problems in Biological Sciences

B. Culminating Requirement (4 units)

(4)

BIO 500

Master's Thesis (Advanced to candidacy and chair permission of his/her thesis committee)

Additional Requirements for Concentrations

Units required: 16

No Concentration (16 units)

(2)

BIO 221A

Cell & Molecular Methods and Techniques (BIO 220; may be taken concurrently) OR

 

BIO 221B

Methods in Ecology, Evolution, and Conservation (BIO 167; BIO 220 may be taken concurrently)

(3)

BIO 282

Evolution

(11) Approved electives in Biological Sciences or supporting fields. Electives must be selected in consultation with the graduate advisor and approved at the Advancement to Candidacy meeting. Up to two additional units of BIO 294A/B (up to 4 total) taken as a graduate student in the program may be applied to the MS degree.

Ecology, Evolution and Conservation (16 unit minimum)

(2)

BIO 221B

Methods in Ecology, Evolution and Conservation (BIO 167; BIO 220 may be taken concurrently)

(3)

BIO 282

Evolution

(11) Approved electives in Biological Sciences or supporting fields. Electives must be selected in consultation with the graduate advisor and approved at the Advancement to Candidacy meeting. Up to two additional units of BIO 294B (up to 4 total) taken as a graduate student in the program may be applied to the MS degree.

Molecular and Cellular Biology (16 unit minimum)

(2)

BIO 221A

Cell & Molecular Methods and Techniques (BIO 220; may be taken concurrently) OR

(3)

BIO 222

Molecular Biology (BIO 184, CHEM 161)

(3)

BIO 224

Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics (BIO 184, BIO 222 and graduate status or instructor permission)

(8) Approved electives in Biological Sciences or supporting fields. Electives must be selected in consultation with the graduate advisor and approved at the Advancement to Candidacy meeting. Up to two additional units of BIO 294A (up to 4 total) coursework taken as a graduate student in the program may be applied to the MS degree.

Note: Supporting Fields: A maximum of 10 units from an approved supporting field (e.g., Chemistry, Physics, Environmental Studies, Geology, Physics) may be counted toward the degree, with graduate advisor and graduate committee approval obtained before taking the course(s).

Career Possibilities

Health Careers (requiring further study): Physician · Dentist · Pharmacist · Optometrist · Physician's Assistant · Genetic Counselor · Podiatrist · Physical Therapist
Laboratory-based Careers (may require further training): Clinical Laboratory Scientist · Molecular Biologist · Stem Cell Research Scientist · Geneticist · Forensic Scientist · Physiologist · Plant Pathologist
Regulation and Licensing: Wildlife Biologist · Botanist · Ecologist · Fisheries Biologist · Public Health Microbiologist · Environmental Consultant · Marine Biologist · Ornithologist · Mammalogist · Parasitologist · Zoologist
Other: High School Science Teacher · Pharmaceutical Sales · Science Writer · Medical Illustrator

Faculty

William Avery, Ruth Ballard, Juanita Barrena, James Baxter, Rosalee Carter, Ronald Coleman, Shannon Datwyler, Nicholas Ewing, Enid Gonzalez, Brett Holland, Christine Kirvan, Jamie Kneitel, Winston Lancaster, Tom Landerholm, Susanne Lindgren, Jennifer Lundmark, Kelly McDonald, Robert Metcalf, Hao Nguyen, Thomas Peavy, Adam Rechs, Rose Leigh Vines

Contact Information

Jennifer Lundmark, Department Chair
Nancy Angell, Administrative Support Coordinator
Sequoia Hall 202
(916) 278-6535
www.csus.edu/bios



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