Biological Sciences

College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics

Program Description

The Department of Biological Sciences offers both undergraduate and graduate degree programs. At the undergraduate level, students are able to earn a Bachelor of Arts degree, a Bachelor of Science degree, or a Minor in Biological Sciences. Within the Bachelor of Science degree program students may focus their work by selecting one or more of the following concentrations: Biomedical Sciences, Cell and Molecular Biology, Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Ecology, Evolution and Conservation, Forensic Biology, or Microbiology; or students may choose to obtain the Bachelor of Science in General Biology.

At the Graduate level, students may earn a Master of Arts or Master of Science degree in Biological Sciences and may also focus their work by pursuing a concentration in Ecology, Evolution, and Conservation or in Molecular and Cellular Biology within the Master of Science in Biological Sciences.

Special Features

  • An Academic Achievement Certificate in Issues in Natural Resource Management may be earned with coursework beyond the B.S.
  • Laboratory experiences are included with most major’s courses, giving students an exceptional level of on-hands training during the degree program.
  • The Department maintains a large collection of thousands of living and preserved plants and animals that are used for instruction, research, and public outreach. A complete list of the Department’s current collections can be found on the Department’s webpage (www.csus.edu/bios).

  • Students have the opportunity to engage in research in a wide range of projects with individual faculty and through two University-recognized centers, each of which is composed of a cross-disciplinary interdepartmental group of faculty: CREST (the Center for Regional Environmental Science and Technology) and CIMERA (the Center for Interdisciplinary Molecular Biology Education, Research and Advancement).
  • The Sierra Nevada and the Pacific Coast are equally accessible from Sacramento, providing field biology students the opportunity to study an extraordinary number of varied habitats.
  • Sacramento State is one of the seven participating CSU campuses at Moss Landing Marine Laboratories (MLML) near Monterey.
  • Located in the State Capital, Sacramento State provides a unique opportunity for students to become involved with various State and Federal agencies through biological internships and part-time employment.
  • Public agencies, hospitals, clinics, and private health practices in the Sacramento area provide opportunities for students interested in the health care fields.

Contact Information

Shannon Datwyler, Department Chair
Nancy Angell, Administrative Support Coordinator
Sequoia Hall 202
(916) 278-6535
www.csus.edu/bios

Faculty

ALTMAN, ROBIN

AVERY, WILLIAM E.

BALLARD, RUTH E.

BAXTER, JAMES W.

COLEMAN, RONALD M.

CRAWFORD, ROBERT

DATWYLER, SHANNON L.

DAVIDSON, TIMOTHY

EWING, NICHOLAS N.

GLEASON, LANI

GONZALEZ, ENID T.

HOLLAND, BRETT T.

KIRVAN, CHRISTINE A.

KNEITEL, JAMIE M.

LANDERHOLM, THOMAS E.

LINDGREN, SUSANNE W.

LUNDMARK, JENNIFER ANN

MCDONALD, KELLY

NGUYEN, HAO

PEAVY, THOMAS R.

PITZER, JR., JIMMY

RECHS, ADAM J.

SPROWLS, ROSALEE

WRIGHT, T. MICHAEL

Undergraduate Programs

The Biological Sciences program at Sacramento State is one of the most highly sought after programs in Northern California. Due to the large number of applications, the program is now officially impacted. Students wishing to become Biological Science majors must complete a series of required lower division and then must apply for admission to the program. Check the department website for requirements, and it is highly recommended that interested students speak with an advisor at the Natural Sciences Advising Center (NSAC) as soon as possible.

Freshmen interested in the major are admitted as pre-Biological Science majors.

To change to the Biological Sciences major, pre-major students are required to complete the following courses and grade requirements and submit a Declaration of Major form to the Biological Science Department Office along with transcript copies.

  1. Completion of the following lower division "pre-major" courses with a minimum "C" or better. Only first or second attempt will be considered:
    BIO 1Biodiversity, Evolution and Ecology (or equivalent)5
    BIO 2Cells, Molecules and Genes (or equivalent)5
    CHEM 1AGeneral Chemistry I (or equivalent)5
    STAT 1Introduction to Statistics (or equivalent)3
    ENGL 5Accelerated Academic Literacies (or equivalent)3
  2. Overall GPA of 2.5 based on the pre-major courses listed above.
  3. Minimum of 30 units completed at the college level.

BA in Biological Science

Units required for Major: 62-66
Minimum total units required for the BA: 120

Required Lower Division Courses (37-41 Units)
BIO 1Biodiversity, Evolution and Ecology5
BIO 2Cells, Molecules and Genes5
CHEM 1AGeneral Chemistry I5
CHEM 1BGeneral Chemistry II5
Select one of the following:3 - 6
Organic Chemistry Lecture--Brief Course 1
Organic Chemistry Lecture I
Organic Chemistry Lecture II
Select one of the following:3 - 4
Calculus I for the Social and Life Sciences
Calculus I
PHYS 5AGeneral Physics: Mechanics, Heat, Sound4
PHYS 5BGeneral Physics: Light, Electricity and Magnetism, Modern Physics4
STAT 1Introduction to Statistics3
Required Upper Division Courses (22 Units)
BIO 100Introduction to Scientific Analysis2
BIO 121Molecular Cell Biology3
BIO 139General Microbiology4
BIO 160General Ecology3
BIO 184General Genetics4
BIO 188Evolution3
CHEM 161General Biochemistry 23
Elective Courses (3 Units)
Select one course from the following Structure and Function Electives:3
Physiology of Human Reproduction
Advanced Human Anatomy
Neuroanatomy
Comparative Vertebrate Morphology
Developmental Biology
Plant Anatomy and Physiology
Histology
Systemic Physiology
Neurophysiology
Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Renal Physiology
Endocrinology
Total Units62-66
1

CHEM 24 and CHEM 124 may be taken in lieu of CHEM 20. (CHEM 124 is not counted toward the 24 upper division unit requirement in the major.)

2

CHEM 160A and CHEM 160B may be taken in lieu of CHEM 161. Only three units of the package may be counted toward the upper division major requirement.

Notes:

  • Pre-Health Professional students should take the Chemistry and Math requirements as stated in the Pre-Health Professional Program section of this catalog.

BS in Biological Science

Units required for Major: 73-85, includes units of study in chosen concentration (see below).
Minimum total units required for the BS: 120-121

Note:

  • CHEM 24 and CHEM 124 are required instead of CHEM 20 for the Biomedical Sciences Concentration.
  • Additional units may be required to meet the Sacramento State foreign language requirement.
Required Lower Division Core Courses (37-41 Units)
BIO 1Biodiversity, Evolution and Ecology5
BIO 2Cells, Molecules and Genes5
CHEM 1AGeneral Chemistry I5
CHEM 1BGeneral Chemistry II5
Select one of the following:3 - 6
Organic Chemistry Lecture--Brief Course 1
Organic Chemistry Lecture I
Organic Chemistry Lecture II
Select one of the following:3 - 4
Calculus I for the Social and Life Sciences
Calculus I
PHYS 5AGeneral Physics: Mechanics, Heat, Sound4
PHYS 5BGeneral Physics: Light, Electricity and Magnetism, Modern Physics4
STAT 1Introduction to Statistics3
Required Upper Division Core Courses (6 Units)
BIO 100Introduction to Scientific Analysis2
BIO 184General Genetics4
Concentration (30-38 Units)
Select from the following concentrations:30 - 38
General Biology
Biomedical Sciences
Cell and Molecular Biology
Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Ecology, Evolution, and Conservation
Forensic Biology
Microbiology
Total Units73-85
1

CHEM 24 and CHEM 124 may be taken in lieu of CHEM 20. (CHEM 124 is not counted toward the 36 upper division unit requirement in the major except in the Biomedical Sciences Concentration.)

Notes:

  • Pre-Health Professional students should take the Chemistry and Math requirements as stated in the Pre-Health Professional Program section of this catalog.
  • With approval, up to six units of upper division coursework from related fields may be applied as electives in the major.
  • No more than 2 units from the following combined can be applied to the Biological Sciences upper division major requirement.
    BIO 195Biological Internship1 - 2
    BIO 197ALaboratory Teaching Assistant1 - 2
    BIO 197BLaboratory Techniques1 - 2
    BIO 197CCo-curricular Activities in Biology1 - 2
    BIO 199AIntroductory Undergraduate Research1 - 2
    BIO 199BDirected Readings1 - 2

Additional Requirements for Concentrations

Units required: 30-38

Concentration - General Biology

Units required for concentration: 30 

The general biology concentration is intended to give students a broad training in the Biological Sciences and an opportunity to explore a wide range of elective courses. It also provides necessary preparation for most graduate programs and selected entry level technical positions in industry and government.  The BS in Biological Sciences meets requirements leading to the Biology Subject Matter Competency Teaching Credential (with three supplemental geoscience and environmental studies courses) and also satisfies requirements for admission to health professional schools (with additional coursework in Math and Chemistry).

Required Courses (16 Units)
BIO 121Molecular Cell Biology3
BIO 139General Microbiology4
BIO 160General Ecology3
BIO 188Evolution3
CHEM 161General Biochemistry 13
Elective Courses (14 Units)
Select one of the following Structure and Function electives:3
Physiology of Human Reproduction
Advanced Human Anatomy
Neuroanatomy
Comparative Vertebrate Morphology
Developmental Biology
Plant Anatomy and Physiology
Histology
Systemic Physiology
Neurophysiology
Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Renal Physiology
Select additional upper division elective courses in consultation with an advisor to total 14 total upper division elective units.11
Total Units30
1

CHEM 160A and CHEM 160B may be taken in lieu of CHEM 161. Only three units of the package may be counted toward the upper division requirement.

Concentration - Biomedical Sciences

Units required for concentration: 34

The concentration in Biomedical Sciences is designed to prepare students for graduate study in the anatomical and physiological sciences or for health professional training (Medical, Veterinary, Physical Therapy, Nursing, Pharmacy, or other health professions).

Required Courses (21 Units)
BIO 22Introductory Human Anatomy4
BIO 121Molecular Cell Biology3
BIO 131Systemic Physiology4
BIO 139General Microbiology4
CHEM 25Organic Chemistry Laboratory3
CHEM 161General Biochemistry3
Elective Courses (13 Units)
Select one of the following Structure and Function electives:3
Physiology of Human Reproduction
Advanced Human Anatomy
Neuroanatomy
Comparative Vertebrate Morphology
Developmental Biology
Plant Anatomy and Physiology
Histology
Neurophysiology
Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Renal Physiology
Select one of the following Ecology, Evolution, and Biodiversity electives:3
Part A: Biodiversity Electives
Plants and Civilization
Plant Taxonomy
The Diversity of Microorganisms
Human Parasitology
General Entomology
Ichthyology: The Study of Fishes
Amphibians and Reptiles: An Introduction to Herpetology
Ornithology
Mammalogy
Part B: Ecology and Evolution Electives
Evolution and Speciation in Flowering Plants
Natural Resource Conservation
General Ecology
Animal Behavior
Principles of Fisheries Biology
Principles of Wildlife Management
Ecological and Environmental Issues Seminar
Evolution
Select additional electives in consultation with an advisor to total 13 upper division elective units7
Total Units34

Note: Students in Biomedical Sciences concentration must take CHEM 24 and CHEM 124 instead of CHEM 20.

Concentration - Cell and Molecular Biology

Units required for concentration: 35

The concentration in Cell and Molecular Biology is designed for students interested in advanced studies at the Masters or Ph.D. level, students pursuing career working in biotechnology, or pre-health professions majors pursuing a fundamental understanding of the bimolecular basis of disease. Students completing the degree requirements for the Cell and Molecular Biology concentration also fulfills the requirements for a minor in Chemistry.

Required Courses (25 Units)
BIO 121Molecular Cell Biology3
BIO 180Advanced Molecular Biology4
BIO 187Advanced Cell Biology4
BIO 188Evolution3
CHEM 20LIntroductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory1
CHEM 31Quantitative Analysis4
CHEM 161General Biochemistry 13
CHEM 162General Biochemistry Laboratory 23
Elective Courses (10 Units)
Select one of the following:4
Comparative Vertebrate Morphology
Developmental Biology
Plant Anatomy and Physiology
Systemic Physiology
Select one of the following Ecology, Evolution, and Biodiversity electives:3
Part A: Biodiversity Electives
Plants and Civilization
Plant Taxonomy
The Diversity of Microorganisms
Human Parasitology
General Entomology
Ichthyology: The Study of Fishes
Amphibians and Reptiles: An Introduction to Herpetology
Ornithology
Part B: Ecology and Evolution Electives
Evolution and Speciation in Flowering Plants
Natural Resource Conservation
General Ecology
Animal Behavior
Principles of Fisheries Biology
Principles of Wildlife Management
Ecological and Environmental Issues Seminar
Select additional upper division electives in consultation with an advisor to total 10 units.3
Total Units35
1

CHEM 160A and CHEM 160B may be taken in lieu of CHEM 161. Only three units of the package may be counted toward the upper division major requirement.

2

CHEM 162 is included in the 36 upper division unit requirement for this concentration.

Concentration - Clinical Laboratory Sciences

Units required for concentration: 35

The curriculum in Clinical Laboratory Sciences meets the undergraduate coursework requirements of the State of California for eligibility to take a Clinical Laboratory Scientist (CSL) licensure examination. Eligibility to take a licensure examination also requires a one year (CLS) internship training program at a state approved clinical laboratory. Completion of BS degree requirements in the Clinical Laboratory Sciences concentration does not guarantee admission to a CLS internship training program. Information on admission criteria and application procedures for the various CLS internship training programs throughout the state is available through California Association for Medical Laboratory Technology (CAMLT) at their Web site http://www.camlt.org/cls/.

Required courses (35 Units)
BIO 121Molecular Cell Biology3
BIO 124Clinical Hematology3
BIO 131Systemic Physiology4
BIO 139General Microbiology4
BIO 144Pathogenic Bacteriology4
BIO 149AImmunology3
BIO 149BImmunology and Serology Laboratory1
BIO 152Human Parasitology3
CHEM 31Quantitative Analysis4
CHEM 161General Biochemistry 13
CHEM 162General Biochemistry Laboratory 23
Total Units35
1

CHEM 160A and CHEM 160B may be taken in lieu of CHEM 161. Only three units of the package may be counted toward the upper division requirement.

2

CHEM 162 can be included in the 36 upper division unit requirement for this concentration.

Note: A minor in Chemistry may be attained if either CHEM 20L or CHEM 25 is taken.

Concentration - Ecology, Evolution, and Conservation

Units required for concentration: 30 

The concentration in Ecology, Evolution, and Conservation is designed for students interested in wildlife management conservation biology, or pursuing graduate study in ecological and evolutionary approaches in the Biological Sciences. By choosing the Conservation Biology advising track, students get necessary training for a career working with local, state, or federal agencies as a biologist or environmental scientist. The Ecology and Evolution advising track is designed to prepare students for graduate study in the Biological Sciences.

Required Courses (14 Units)
BIO 160General Ecology3
BIO 167Quantitative Methods in Biology3
BIO 178Molecular Ecology4
BIO/ENVS 186BEcological and Environmental Issues Seminar1
BIO 188Evolution3
Elective Courses (16 Units)
Select one of the following Structure and Function electives:3
Physiology of Human Reproduction
Advanced Human Anatomy
Neuroanatomy
Comparative Vertebrate Morphology
Developmental Biology
Plant Anatomy and Physiology
Histology
Systemic Physiology
Neurophysiology
Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Renal Physiology
Select three of the following Ecology, Evolution, and Biodiversity electives: 19
Part A: Biodiversity Electives
Plants and Civilization
Plant Taxonomy
The Diversity of Microorganisms
Human Parasitology
General Entomology
Ichthyology: The Study of Fishes
Amphibians and Reptiles: An Introduction to Herpetology
Ornithology
Mammalogy
Part B: Ecology and Evolution Electives
Evolution and Speciation in Flowering Plants
Natural Resource Conservation
Animal Behavior
Principles of Fisheries Biology
Principles of Wildlife Management
Select additional upper division elective courses in consultation with an advisor to total 16 upper division elective units4
Total Units30
1

At least one course must be from Part A and one course from Part B (each course must be a minimum of 3 units).

Concentration - Forensic Biology

Units required for concentration: 38

The curriculum in Forensic Biology is designed to prepare students for careers as criminalist specializing in the analysis and interpretation of serological and DNA evidence. This curriculum meets the educational requirements for entry level career positions with city, county, and federal agencies. Students selecting this concentration are urged to pursue internship opportunities (BIO 195), such as those available through the Sacramento County Coroner's Office, and/or directed research (BIO 199A or BIO 199B) with a faculty member in Biological Sciences or Chemistry who utilizes molecular biology techniques and instrumentation. Students completing the requirements for a concentration in Forensic Biology also fulfill the requirements for a minor in Chemistry.

Required Courses (32 Units)
BIO 121Molecular Cell Biology3
BIO 150Forensic Biology3
BIO 151Advanced Laboratory Techniques in Forensic Biology2
BIO 180Advanced Molecular Biology4
CHEM 20LIntroductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory1
CHEM 31Quantitative Analysis4
CHEM 161General Biochemistry 13
CHEM 162General Biochemistry Laboratory 23
CRJ 4General Investigative Techniques3
CRJ 154Introduction to Physical Evidence3
Select one of the following:3
Gangs and Threat Groups in America
Sexual Offenses and Offenders
Drug Abuse and Criminal Behavior
Elective Courses (6 Units)
Select one of the following Structure and Function electives:3
Physiology of Human Reproduction
Advanced Human Anatomy
Neuroanatomy
Comparative Vertebrate Morphology
Developmental Biology
Plant Anatomy and Physiology
Histology
Systemic Physiology
Neurophysiology
Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Renal Physiology
Select one of the following Ecology, Evolution, and Biodiversity electives:3
Part A: Biodiversity Electives
Plants and Civilization
Plant Taxonomy
The Diversity of Microorganisms
Human Parasitology
General Entomology
Ichthyology: The Study of Fishes
Amphibians and Reptiles: An Introduction to Herpetology
Ornithology
Mammalogy
Part B: Ecology and Evolution Electives
Evolution and Speciation in Flowering Plants
Natural Resource Conservation
General Ecology
Animal Behavior
Principles of Fisheries Biology
Principles of Wildlife Management
Ecological and Environmental Issues Seminar
Evolution
Total Units38
1

CHEM 160A and CHEM 160B may be taken in lieu of CHEM 161. Only three units of the package may be counted toward the upper division requirement.

2

CHEM 162 can be included in the 36 upper division unit requirement for this concentration.

Note: Students with a declared concentration in Forensic Biology do not need to take CRJ 1, CRJ 2 or CRJ 102 as prerequisites for the CRJ courses required in this concentration.

Concentration - Microbiology

Units required for concentration: 35

The concentration in Microbiology is designed to prepare students for entry level technical positions in the industry and graduate programs in Microbiology leading to careers in research and teaching. This curriculum meets the educational requirements for various entry level career positions for biotechnology, environmental, pharmaceutical, wastewater treatment, and agricultural areas of microbiology. Concentration includes a minor in Chemistry.

Required Courses (28 Units)
BIO 121Molecular Cell Biology3
BIO 139General Microbiology4
BIO 143General Virology3
BIO 145The Diversity of Microorganisms3
BIO 180Advanced Molecular Biology4
CHEM 20LIntroductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory1
CHEM 31Quantitative Analysis4
CHEM 161General Biochemistry 13
CHEM 162General Biochemistry Laboratory 23
Elective Courses (7 Units)
Select 7 units from the following Cell and Molecular Biology electives or Clinical Laboratory Science and Infectious Disease electives: 37
Cell and Molecular Biology Electives
Immunology
Forensic Biology
Advanced Laboratory Techniques in Forensic Biology
Advanced Nutrition and Metabolism
Molecular Ecology
Cancer Biology
Topics in Biology
Cell and Molecular Biology Seminar
Advanced Cell Biology
Clinical Laboratory Science and Infectious Disease Electives
Medical Mycology
Medical Microbiology and Emerging Infectious Diseases 4
Pathogenic Bacteriology 4
Immunology and Serology Laboratory
Human Parasitology
Epidemiology 5
Total Units35
1

CHEM 160A and CHEM 160B may be taken in lieu of CHEM 161. Only three units of the package may be counted toward the upper division requirement.

2

CHEM 162 can be included in the 36 upper division unit requirement for this concentration.

3

Electives chosen in consultation with an advisor. BIO 124 and BIO 125 cannot be taken to fulfill the elective requirements for the Microbiology Concentration.

4

Students may not receive credit for both BIO 140 and BIO 144. Cannot be counted for credit in the Clinical Laboratory Sciences concentration.

5

Required for Public Health Microbiology Traineeship.

Elective Lists

Elective List 1: Structure and Function Electives
BIO 104Physiology of Human Reproduction3
BIO 122Advanced Human Anatomy4
BIO 123Neuroanatomy3
BIO 126Comparative Vertebrate Morphology3
BIO 127Developmental Biology4
BIO 128Plant Anatomy and Physiology4
BIO 130Histology3
BIO 131Systemic Physiology4
BIO 132Neurophysiology3
BIO 133Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Renal Physiology3
Elective List 2: Ecology, Evolution, and Biodiversity
Part A: Biodiversity Electives (30 Units)
BIO 103Plants and Civilization3
BIO 112Plant Taxonomy4
BIO 145The Diversity of Microorganisms3
BIO 152Human Parasitology3
BIO 157General Entomology4
BIO 162Ichthyology: The Study of Fishes3
BIO 164Amphibians and Reptiles: An Introduction to Herpetology3
BIO 166Ornithology3
BIO 168Mammalogy4
Part B: Ecology and Evolution Electives (22 Units)
BIO 113Evolution and Speciation in Flowering Plants3
BIO 118Natural Resource Conservation3
BIO 160General Ecology3
BIO 169Animal Behavior3
BIO 173Principles of Fisheries Biology3
BIO 179Principles of Wildlife Management3
BIO/ENVS 186BEcological and Environmental Issues Seminar1
BIO 188Evolution3
Elective List 3: Cell and Molecular Biology Electives
BIO 121Molecular Cell Biology3
BIO 139General Microbiology4
BIO 143General Virology3
BIO 149AImmunology3
BIO 150Forensic Biology3
BIO 151Advanced Laboratory Techniques in Forensic Biology2
BIO/FACS 170Advanced Nutrition and Metabolism3
BIO 178Molecular Ecology4
BIO 180Advanced Molecular Biology4
BIO 183Cancer Biology3
BIO 185Topics in Biology3
BIO 186ACell and Molecular Biology Seminar1
BIO 187Advanced Cell Biology4
Elective List 4: Clinical Laboratory Science and Infectious Disease Electives
BIO 124Clinical Hematology 13
BIO 125Body Fluid Analysis1
BIO 134Medical Mycology3
BIO 140Medical Microbiology and Emerging Infectious Diseases 23
BIO 144Pathogenic Bacteriology4
BIO 149BImmunology and Serology Laboratory1
BIO 152Human Parasitology3
HLSC 148Epidemiology 33
1

Cannot be counted for credit in the Microbiology concentration.

2

Students may not receive credit for both BIO 140 and BIO 144. Cannot be counted for credit in the Clinical Laboratory Sciences concentration.

3

Required for Public Health Microbiology Traineeship.

Cooperative Education Program (Work Experience)

Biology majors can participate in the University's Cooperative Education Program. This program provides biology-related, paid, off-campus work experience in government agencies or private industry. The experience can enhance the student's employment prospects upon graduation. Participants in this program will complete at least one six-month period. During the work period, the participant generally will not attend classes on the Sacramento State campus but will enroll in BIO 194, Biology-Related Work Experience. (BIO 194 units do not replace the curricular requirements of the Biological Sciences degree programs.) Students interested in this program should contact the Biological Sciences Department or the campus Cooperative Education Program Office for further information.

Honors Program

(with either BA or BS Degree Program)

Biological Sciences Honors Program provides undergraduate students with an in-depth research experience. An undergraduate research experience is highly recommended for entry into many graduate and professional programs. Culmination of the Honors Program will consist of an undergraduate thesis and an undergraduate seminar. To enter this program, students must have an overall GPA of 3.25 and a minimum of 3.0 GPA in biology courses with at least 15 units of biology and have completed at least 6 units of upper division biology courses, excluding the following:

BIO 106Genetics: From Mendel to Molecules3
BIO 195Biological Internship1 - 2
BIO 197ALaboratory Teaching Assistant1 - 2
BIO 197BLaboratory Techniques1 - 2
BIO 197CCo-curricular Activities in Biology1 - 2
BIO 199AIntroductory Undergraduate Research1 - 2
BIO 199BDirected Readings1 - 2

The curriculum of the Honors Program is designed to be coupled with the BA or BS degree programs. The Honors Program requires the following courses, completed with a grade of "B" or better, for the BA or BS degree:

BIO 198AHonors Proseminar and Research (Open only to honors students in Biological Sciences as defined above)2
BIO 198BHonors Research and Seminar2

Minor - Biological Science

Units required for Minor: 20 units

The minor in Biological Sciences is designed to provide students in other majors with the opportunity to broaden their exposure to and understanding of the biological sciences. The minor complements several majors that require coursework in biological sciences, including Chemistry, Nursing, Environmental Studies, Health Science, Kinesiology, and Family and Consumer Sciences.

The minor requires 20 units. The 20 units must include a minimum of 10 upper division units at least one of the upper division courses must have a laboratory component. Three units of biochemistry may be counted toward the minor. Six upper division units must be earned in residence. No more than two units of the following may be counted toward the minor:

BIO 186ACell and Molecular Biology Seminar1
BIO/ENVS 186BEcological and Environmental Issues Seminar1
BIO 194Biology-Related Work Experience6 - 12
BIO 195Biological Internship1 - 2
BIO 197ALaboratory Teaching Assistant1 - 2
BIO 197BLaboratory Techniques1 - 2
BIO 197CCo-curricular Activities in Biology1 - 2
BIO 199AIntroductory Undergraduate Research1 - 2
BIO 199BDirected Readings1 - 2

Note: All prerequisites for all courses will be enforced.

Subject Matter Program (Pre-Credential Preparation)

Biological Sciences majors who intend to pursue a teaching credential must complete the science subject matter program which is described in this catalog. Successful completion of this program fulfills the subject matter competence program in the College of Education. The Single Subject Credential in General Science/Biology allows graduates to teach all four of the sciences (Geoscience, Biology, Chemistry, and Physics) at the General Science level in 7-12 grades, and Biology at an advanced level in high school.

Currently there is a great need for K-12 teachers educated in science. Changes in State Board of Education Standards and increasing interest in Biological Sciences have created significant demands for students with this credential. Biological Sciences majors who have an interest in teaching should contact one of the credential advisors in the Biological Sciences Department, Melanie Loo.

Note: Due to policy changes from the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing and the federal No Child Left Behind mandate, the Science Subject Matter program was under review at the time of this catalog and is subject to revision. As a result, it is important to consult a credential advisor for current details.

Certificate - Issues in Natural Resource Management

Units required for Certificate: 15, in addition to requirements for BS (see below)

The Academic Achievement Certificate in Issues in Natural Resource Management is designed to provide an interdisciplinary perspective on the conflicts, controversies, and biopolitical issues that natural resource biologists must deal with in their careers, and to introduce students to the non-biological considerations that influence decision making processes in natural resource utilization and management.

A minimum of 15 units selected from the following list in addition to requirements for the BS in Biological Sciences with a concentration in Biological Conservation. The certificate may also be awarded to students completing the BS in General Biology with the approval of the Biological Conservation advisors.

Select a minimum of 15 units from the following:15
Economics and Environmental Degradation
Resource Economics
Contemporary Environmental Issues
International Environmental Problems
Environment and the Law
California's Water Resources
Geology and the Environment
Public Policy Development
Total Units15

Graduate Program

The graduate programs in Biological Sciences lead to either a Master of Arts (MA) or a Master of Science (MS) degree and provides an opportunity for students to receive advanced training and to pursue independent investigations in particular fields of biology. It allows students to upgrade their qualifications for educational advancement to doctoral programs or for professional advancement in teaching, laboratory work, or fieldwork. The MA degree requires the completion of a project which is a Grant Proposal, unless the student is in the Stem Cell Concentration which requires an Internship Project Report. The MS degree requires completion of a thesis which has concentrations in Ecology, Evolution and Conservation and in Molecular and Cellular Biology so as to provide advanced training and research experience in these fields.

All students are required to complete a project or thesis involving field, laboratory, or literature research. The project or thesis research may be conducted on campus with a biology faculty member or at an off-campus location. In either case, the student's research must make a new contribution to the field of biology. If the research is conducted off campus, a biology faculty member must be identified as the student's graduate advisor. Following admission to the program, students are advised by a temporary graduate advisor or by the faculty member who has agreed to supervise the student in their project/thesis research. Students should plan their academic programs in consultation with a graduate advisor as early as possible, preferably prior to enrollment in the program.

For additional information regarding the Biological Sciences Graduate Program, students may contact the Biological Sciences Department Office, Biological Sciences website (http://www.csus.edu/bios/), or consult the Biological Sciences Graduate Program Handbook, available through the Department's Web site.

Graduate Admission Requirements

Admission as a classified graduate student to the MA or MS program in Biological Sciences requires:

  • a baccalaureate degree;
  • completion of a major in biological sciences or closely related field; or completion of 24 units of upper division biological sciences courses or courses in closely related fields, each of which must be passed with a "C-" or better;
  • a minimum GPA of 2.75 in all biology courses and a minimum GPA of 3.0 in upper division biology courses;
  • GRE General Test scores;
  • a faculty member who has agreed to serve as their graduate advisor;
  • two letters of recommendation from persons qualified to judge the applicant's potential for successful graduate study; and
  • a statement of purpose.

It is important to note that meeting all admission requirements does not guarantee acceptance into the graduate program. Students who have deficiencies in admission requirements that can be removed by specified additional preparation, or who have not been accepted by a graduate advisor, may be admitted with conditionally classified graduate status. Admission as a conditionally classified graduate student does not guarantee fully classified status. Fully classified graduate status is conferred when all deficiencies identified at the time of admission are removed and a biology faculty member has agreed to serve as their thesis advisor. Any deficiencies in admissions requirements will be noted on a written response to the admission application.

Graduate Admission Procedures

Applicants must complete a university application by the posted application deadline date for the term applying. :

  • an online application for admission; and
  • two sets of official transcripts from all colleges and universities attended, other than Sacramento State.

For more admissions information and application deadlines, please visit http://www.csus.edu/gradstudies/.

In addition, all prospective graduate students must submit the following application materials directly to the Department of Biological Sciences:

  • an online departmental application for admission;
  • one set of unofficial transcripts from all colleges and universities attended, other than Sacramento State;
  • GRE General Test scores (NOTE: GRE General Test scores will be accepted after the application deadline but only if the test was taken prior to the deadline);
  • two letters of recommendation; and
  • a statement of purpose.

Departmental applications for admission are due February 1. There is currently no general call for admission for students to begin in the spring semester. However a student may petition the department to begin the spring. Please contact your potential graduate advisor (i.e., a faculty member in your area of interest) to discuss this option. Approximately eight to ten weeks after receipt of all items listed above, a decision regarding admission will be mailed to the applicant.

Advancement to Candidacy

The Advancement to Candidacy process serves to ensure that a student is qualified for and making good progress toward successfully completing the Master's degree. Each classified graduate student must file an application for Advancement to Candidacy, indicating a proposed program of graduate study. This procedure should begin as soon as the classified graduate student has:

  • removed any deficiencies in admission requirements;
  • completed at least 12 units in the graduate program with a minimum 3.0 GPA, including at least one course at the 200-level;
  • begun a preliminary study for the thesis or project; and
  • taken the Writing Placement for Graduate Students (WPG) or taken a Graduate Writing Intensive (GWI) course in their discipline within the first two semesters of coursework at California State University, Sacramento or secured approval for a WPG waiver.

An Application for Advancement to Candidacy forms are available in the Office of Graduate Studies Web site and the Department of Biological Sciences Web site. The student fills out the form after planning a degree program in consultation with his/her Biological Sciences graduate advisor. After approval by the Biological Sciences Graduate Committee and the student's thesis committee, the completed form is returned to the Office of Graduate Studies for approval.

MA in Biological Science

Units required for MA: 30 includes units required in areas of concentration.
Minimum GPA: 3.0

The MA degree requires completion of 30 units of coursework with a minimum 3.0 GPA. The 30 units must include a minimum of 18 units of 200-level courses. No units from the following are acceptable toward the master's degree.

BIO 106Genetics: From Mendel to Molecules3
BIO 194Biology-Related Work Experience6 - 12
BIO 195Biological Internship1 - 2
BIO 197ALaboratory Teaching Assistant1 - 2
BIO 197BLaboratory Techniques1 - 2
BIO 197CCo-curricular Activities in Biology1 - 2
BIO 198AHonors Proseminar and Research2
BIO 198BHonors Research and Seminar2
BIO 199AIntroductory Undergraduate Research1 - 2
BIO 199BDirected Readings1 - 2

No more than 2 units of BIO 502 may be applied toward the 30 unit requirement.

Each student who receives a Master of Arts degree from the Department of Biological Sciences must submit a written project based on a research problem in biology under the supervision of a graduate advisor. A project can be based on either of the following:

  • Grant Proposal: a research proposal in the format required by a state or federal granting agency (e.g., National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health) based on a novel hypothesis that addresses a biological problem; OR
  • Internship Project Report: a project report on the student’s internship experience.

All requirements for the Master of Arts degree must be completed within seven (7) years starting from the time the first course is used to meet the master’s degree requirements.

No Concentration

Required Core Courses (8-9 Units)
BIO 220Introduction to Scientific Inquiry2
BIO 294ASeminar in Molecular and Cellular Biology 21
or BIO 294B Seminar in Ecology, Evolution and Conservation
BIO 299Problems in Biological Sciences1 - 4
Select one of the following:2 - 3
Cell and Molecular Methods and Techniques
Methods in Ecology, Evolution and Conservation
Exploration of Biological Methodology
Culminating Requirement (2 Units)
BIO 502Master's Project2
Additional Requirements (20-21 Units)
Select 20-21 units of electives 120 - 21
Total Units30-32
1

Approved electives in Biological Sciences or supporting fields. Electives must be selected in consultation with the graduate advisor and approved at the Advancement to Candidacy meeting. Up to six units of upper division (100-level) coursework taken as a graduate student in the program may be applied to the MA degree. Up to an additional 2 units of BIO 299 may be applied to meet coursework requirements.

2

Students must take BIO 294 two times to fulfill degree requirements. 

Concentration - Stem Cell 

Required Core Courses (25 Units)
BIO 220Introduction to Scientific Inquiry2
BIO 221ACell and Molecular Methods and Techniques2
BIO 222Molecular Biology3
BIO 224Genomics, Proteomics, and Bioinformatics3
BIO 225Stem Cell Biology and Manufacturing Practices1
BIO 227Development and Regenerative Medicine3
BIO 293Research Conference2
BIO 294ASeminar in Molecular and Cellular Biology1
BIO 299Problems in Biological Sciences1 - 4
Culminating Requirement (2 Units)
BIO 502Master's Project2
Additional Requirements (3 Units)
Select one of the following:3
Human Molecular Genetics
Host/Pathogen Interactions
Contemporary Topics in Immunology
Evolution
Separation Methods in Chemistry
Applications of Computational Chemistry
Protein Biochemistry
Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Total Units30

MS in Biological Science

Units required for MS: 30 includes units required in areas of concentration.
Minimum GPA: 3.0

The MS degree requires completion of 30 units of coursework with a minimum 3.0 GPA. The 30 units must include a minimum of 18 units of 200-level seminar courses. No units from the following are acceptable toward the master's degree:

BIO 106Genetics: From Mendel to Molecules3
BIO 194Biology-Related Work Experience6 - 12
BIO 195Biological Internship1 - 2
BIO 197ALaboratory Teaching Assistant1 - 2
BIO 197BLaboratory Techniques1 - 2
BIO 197CCo-curricular Activities in Biology1 - 2
BIO 198AHonors Proseminar and Research2
BIO 198BHonors Research and Seminar2
BIO 199AIntroductory Undergraduate Research1 - 2
BIO 199BDirected Readings1 - 2

No more than 10 units of BIO 299 and BIO 500 may be applied toward the 30 unit requirement.

Each student who receives a Master's of Science degree from the Department of Biological Sciences must submit a thesis based on original research in biology. A thesis can be based on either of the following sources of data:

  • data generated by the student's original research in which the student performs the fieldwork or laboratory experiments and/or
  • data obtained from sources other than the student's own fieldwork or laboratory experiments, provided the data are analyzed in an original way.

The use of data must result in an original contribution to the problem being investigated.

All requirements for the Master's degree must be completed within seven (7) years starting from the time the first course is used to meet the master’s degree requirements.

Required Core Courses (10 Units)
BIO 220Introduction to Scientific Inquiry2
BIO 294ASeminar in Molecular and Cellular Biology 11
or BIO 294B Seminar in Ecology, Evolution and Conservation
BIO 299Problems in Biological Sciences 21 - 4
Culminating Requirement (4 Units)
BIO 500Master's Thesis4
Additional Requirements for Concentrations (16 Units)
Select a concentration from the following:16
No Concentration
Ecology, Evolution and Conservation
Molecular and Cellular Biology
Total Units30
1

Students must take BIO 294 two times to fulfill degree requirements.  

2

 Students must complete 6 units of BIO 299 to fulfill degree requirements.

Additional Requirements for Concentrations

Units required: 16

No Concentration

BIO 221ACell and Molecular Methods and Techniques2
or BIO 221B Methods in Ecology, Evolution and Conservation
BIO 282Evolution3
Select 11 units of approved electives 111
Total Units16
1

Approved electives in Biological Sciences or supporting fields. Electives must be selected in consultation with the graduate advisor and approved at the Advancement to Candidacy meeting. Up to two additional units of BIO 294A/BIO 294B (up to 4 total) taken as a graduate student in the program may be applied to the MS degree.

Concentration - Ecology, Evolution and Conservation

BIO 221BMethods in Ecology, Evolution and Conservation2
BIO 282Evolution3
Select 11 approved electives 111
Total Units16
1

Approved electives in Biological Sciences or supporting fields. Electives must be selected in consultation with the graduate advisor and approved at the Advancement to Candidacy meeting. Up to two additional units of BIO 294B (up to 4 total) taken as a graduate student in the program may be applied to the MS degree.

Concentration - Molecular and Cellular Biology

BIO 221ACell and Molecular Methods and Techniques2
BIO 222Molecular Biology3
BIO 224Genomics, Proteomics, and Bioinformatics3
Select 8 units of approved electives 18
Total Units16
1

Approved electives in Biological Sciences or supporting fields. Electives must be selected in consultation with the graduate advisor and approved at the Advancement to Candidacy meeting. Up to two additional units of BIO 294A (up to 4 total) coursework taken as a graduate student in the program may be applied to the MS degree.

Note: Supporting Fields: A maximum of 10 units from an approved supporting field (e.g., Chemistry, Physics, Environmental Studies, Geology, Physics) may be counted toward the degree, with graduate advisor and graduate committee approval obtained before taking the course(s).

BIO 1.     Biodiversity, Evolution and Ecology. 5 Units

General Education Area / Graduation Requirement: Life Forms (B2), Laboratory (B3)


Introduction to properties of life and cells leading to genetic and biological diversity. Survey of biological diversity emphasizing variation leading to natural selection; introduction to ecological concepts within an evolutionary framework; a survey of ecosystems and global climate change. Development of scientific skills will be emphasized. Designed for science majors. Lecture three hours; laboratory three hours; activity two hours; fee course.

Note: Field trips may be required.

Fee course.

Field trip(s) may be required.

BIO 2.     Cells, Molecules and Genes. 5 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 1 and CHEM 1A.


Introduction to molecular and cellular biology and genetics. Topics include biomolecules, cell structure and function, cellular energetics, molecular flow of information, cell division, and genetic inheritance. Development of scientific skills and a scientific mindset will be emphasized throughout the course, particularly in lab exercises and activities. Designed for science majors. Lecture three hours; laboratory three hours; activity two hours.

BIO 7.     Introduction to the Science of Biology. 4 Units

General Education Area / Graduation Requirement: Laboratory (B3), Life Forms (B2)


Introduction to major concepts of biology, including properties of living things, cells and their molecular constituents, the unity and diversity of organisms, genetics, ecology, evolution, and the scientific methods of investigation employed by biologists. Satisfies requirements in biology for students planning to obtain the Multiple Subject Teaching Credential. Lecture three hours; laboratory three hours. Fee course.

Fee course.

BIO 9.     Our Living World: Evolution, Ecology and Behavior. 3 Units

General Education Area / Graduation Requirement: Life Forms (B2)


Designed for non-majors, this course is an introduction to the biological science behind important issues that face us today, such as those surrounding evolution, endangered species, conservation of ecosystems, and the behavior of organisms. By gaining an understanding of the scientific approach and the principles of evolution, ecology and behavior, students will be equipped to evaluate scientific developments and arguments in these and other issues as informed citizens. Lecture three hours.

Note: Not open to Biological Sciences majors or students who have received credit for BIO 1 or BIO 2.

BIO 10.     Basic Biological Concepts. 3 Units

General Education Area / Graduation Requirement: Life Forms (B2)


An intensive introductory course for non-majors who will take additional course work in biology or related disciplines, including the allied health sciences. Introduction to the biological sciences with strong emphasis on cellular structure and metabolism, molecular biology and genetics, as well as concepts and principles common to all living systems including ecology and evolution. Lecture three hours.

Note: Not open to Biological Sciences majors or students who have received credit for BIO 1 or BIO 2.

BIO 15L.     Laboratory Investigations in Biology. 1 Unit

Prerequisite(s): BIO 9, BIO 10 or BIO 20.

Corequisite(s): BIO 9, BIO 10 or BIO 20.

General Education Area / Graduation Requirement: Laboratory (B3)


Introductory laboratory investigation of the major principles of biology, including properties of all living things, the unity and diversity of organisms, structure and function of cells, energy and metabolism, genetics, ecology, evolution, and the scientific methods of investigation employed by biologists. Laboratory three hours.

Note: Not open to Biological Sciences majors or students who have received credit for BIO 1 or BIO 2.

BIO 20.     Biology: A Human Perspective. 3 Units

General Education Area / Graduation Requirement: Life Forms (B2)


Introduction to biological concepts with emphasis on their application to humans. Topics include: Evidenced-based decision making with respect to food, nutritional supplements, drugs, pathogens, and biotechnology. How heredity and evolution contribute to our understanding of personality, sex, behavior, addiction, disease, and aging is also discussed. Lecture three hours.

Note: Not open to majors in biological sciences and/or students who have received credit for BIO 10.

BIO 22.     Introductory Human Anatomy. 4 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 1, BIO 2 or BIO 10


Introduction to the study of the gross and microscopic structure of the human body using a systemic approach. Lecture three hours; laboratory three hours. Fee course.

Fee course.

BIO 25.     Human Anatomy and Physiology I. 4 Units


BIO 25/26 series provides an introduction to the structure and function of the major organ systems of the human body. BIO 25 offers basic terminology and concepts pertaining to the disciplines of anatomy and physiology, including structure/function relationships, homeostasis, and organizational levels; and provides an introduction to the structure and function of the muscular and nervous systems.

Note: Not open to students who have successfully completed BIO 22 and BIO 131, or an equivalent combination of separate anatomy and physiology courses. Lecture three hours; laboratory three hours. Fee course.

Fee course.

BIO 26.     Human Anatomy and Physiology II. 4 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 25 or instructor permission.


BIO 25/26 series provides an introduction to the structure and function of the major organ systems of the human body. BIO 26 provides an introduction to the structure and function of the cardiovascular, respiratory, renal and digestive systems, and emphasizes homeostatic control mechanisms.

Note: Not open to students who have successfully completed BIO 22 and BIO 131, or an equivalent combination of separate anatomy and physiology courses. Lecture three hours; laboratory three hours. Fee course.

Fee course.

BIO 30.     Anatomy Physiology - Brief Course. 4 Units

Prerequisite(s): Physical Education majors only


An overview of the basic anatomy and physiology of all systems. Designed to meet the standards for the Physical Education Subject Matter Program, but may also may prepare students for study in other health-related fields.

BIO 39.     Microbiology for Allied Health Students. 4 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 10; CHEM 5 or CHEM 6A and CHEM 6B or equivalent.


Introduction to micro-organisms, particularly bacteria and viruses, with emphasis on health care-related applications of microbiology using case studies. Laboratory work includes aseptic techniques, methods of cultivating and identifying bacteria, demonstration of microbial properties and will provide practice with basic microbiological skills. Lecture three hours; laboratory three hours. Fee Course.

Note: Does not satisfy microbiology requirement for Biological Sciences majors.

Fee course.

BIO 100.     Introduction to Scientific Analysis. 2 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 1, BIO 2, and STAT 1; declared Biological Sciences majors only or instructor consent


Covers anatomy of scientific literature, reading and writing scientific papers, proper citation formats, basic interpretation of tables and figures, graphical analysis, basic statistical analysis, experimental design to effectively test a hypothesis, and effective presentation of an experiment. Lecture one hour. Activity two hours.

Note: Course cannot be taken concurrently with or after taking BIO 167

BIO 102.     The Natural History of Plants. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): A college course in biology or instructor permission.


Major plant communities of California provide a framework for understanding the interrelationships of natural environments and the dominant trees and shrubs of these areas. Identification of these species and the wildflowers of the communities are emphasized in the lab and field trips. Designed for minors in biology or for those with an interest in their natural surroundings, but is acceptable for majors who have not completed BIO 112. Lecture one hour; laboratory six hours. Fee course.

Fee course.

Field trip(s) may be required.

BIO 103.     Plants and Civilization. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 10 or equivalent.


Study of the significance of plants in the development of human civilization. Emphasis will be placed on the botanical, sociological and economic aspects of plants useful to humans. Lecture three hours.

BIO 104.     Physiology of Human Reproduction. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 1, BIO 2 or BIO 10.


Study of the physiology of human reproduction. Topics to be covered include: gametogenesis, the basis of fertility, conception, prenatal development, parturition, lactation and the physiology of contraception. Lecture three hours.

BIO 106.     Genetics: From Mendel to Molecules. 3 Units


Introduction to the principles of genetics and scientific approaches used to define those principles. The physical basis of heredity, the impact of selective breeding and genetic engineering will be discussed. Lecture two hours; discussion one hour.

Note: BIO 10 recommended.

BIO 112.     Plant Taxonomy. 4 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 1 and BIO 2.


Spring flora of central California is used as the focus of study in the classification and identification of native vascular plants. Lecture two hours; laboratory six hours. Field trips may be required. Fee course.

Fee course.

Field trip(s) may be required.

BIO 113.     Evolution and Speciation in Flowering Plants. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 1 and BIO 2 or equivalent.


A survey of the important tools and mechanisms used to study speciation in plants. Topics include the molecular basis of evolutionary change, intraspecific genetic variation at both the local and landscape levels, theory regarding mechanisms of speciation, and the importance of polyploidy. Readings will be from both a text and from the primary literature, and will include in-depth discussions of historical and modern studies in plant evolution. Lecture three hours.

BIO 115.     Introduction to Neuroscience. 4 Units

Prerequisite(s): PSYC 2, PSYC 101; physiology and chemistry background strongly recommended.


Investigation of the structure and function of the central nervous system including neuroanatomy and neurophysiology, sensorimotor integration. The lectures and readings emphasize the empirical questions, techniques and methods used in neuroscience research. Laboratory exercises focus on gross- and micro- neuroanatomy, models of membrane electrophysiology and motor system function. Lecture/discussion three hours; laboratory three hours. Cross Listed: PSYC 115; only one may be counted for credit.

BIO 118.     Natural Resource Conservation. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 1 and BIO 2.


Introduction to the principles and practices of biological conservation. Historical development of conservation philosophy; current issues in conservation of renewable natural resources; conservation administration. Lecture three hours.

BIO 120.     Biology of Aging. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 1, BIO 2, BIO 10 or BIO 20.


Theories of aging, cellular aging and aging effects on the various human body systems. Lecture three hours.

Note: Not open for credit to students who have previously taken BIO 131.

BIO 121.     Molecular Cell Biology. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 184


Comparison of the cellular and molecular biology of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Emphasis will be placed on membrane structures, transport phenomena, cell to cell communication, cellular reproduction, genetic architecture, gene expression and metabolism, as well as the eukaryotic endomembrane, cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix systems. Lecture three hours.

BIO 122.     Advanced Human Anatomy. 4 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 22.


Gross structure of the human body using a regional approach. Lecture three hours; laboratory three hours. Fee course.

Fee course.

BIO 123.     Neuroanatomy. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 22.


Gross and microscopic structures of the central, peripheral and autonomic nervous systems. The lectures are correlated with laboratory exercises and demonstrations using human prosected cadaver specimens, audio-visual slide projected materials, charts and models. Lecture two hours; laboratory three hours. Fee course.

Fee course.

BIO 124.     Clinical Hematology. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): CHEM 161 and BIO 184


Basic principles and current clinical laboratory procedures used in the study of blood; emphasis on morphological and chemical changes in the disease processes. Lecture two hours; laboratory three hours. Fee course.

Fee course.

BIO 125.     Body Fluid Analysis. 1 Unit

Prerequisite(s): CHEM 161 or instructor permission.


Production of body fluids (e.g., urine, cerebrospinal, pleural, peritoneal, pericardial, and synovial fluids); their normal characteristics and pathological changes will be discussed. A description of the laboratory tests used in the clinical evaluation of body fluids will also be presented.

BIO 126.     Comparative Vertebrate Morphology. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 1 and BIO 2.


Study of the anatomical systems of vertebrates in an evolutionary and functional context. Covers vertebrate form, function, development and phylogeny, overviews of organ systems, and how their modification founded the major events of vertebrate evolution including metamorphosis, water-to-land transition, tetrapodal locomotion, feeding and reproduction. Labs complement lectures with dissections of three representative species (shark, salamander, cat), and surveys of specializations in other forms. Lecture two hours; laboratory three hours. Fee course.

Fee course.

BIO 127.     Developmental Biology. 4 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 2.


This course examines the progression of fertilized eggs of vertebrate organisms through embryonic development. This progression will be studied at biochemical, molecular, genetic, morphological and physiological levels, with an emphasis on the progressive changes that occur within cells, tissues and organs in the embryo. We will use a comparative approach between a variety of model organisms to understand similarities and differences among vertebrate and selected invertebrate species. Fee course.

Note: Prerequisite will be enforced by instructor.

Fee course.

BIO 128.     Plant Anatomy and Physiology. 4 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 1 and BIO 2.


An integrative examination of our current understanding of plant structure and function. Students will apply fundamental principles of cell and molecular biology, evolution, and ecology to understand the relationships between plant anatomy and plant physiology that have enabled plants to achieve such a high level of success as primary producers on our planet. Lecture three hours, laboratory three hours. Fee course.

Fee course.

BIO 130.     Histology. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 22


Study of the morphology and physiology of cells in primary normal human tissues and the arrangement and adaptations of tissues in organs and organ systems. The characteristics and properties of abnormalities in human tissues will be covered if time permits. Lecture two hours; laboratory three hours.

BIO 131.     Systemic Physiology. 4 Units

Prerequisite(s): CHEM 1B or CHEM 6B and BIO 1 or BIO 2 or BIO 10 or BIO 22.


Physiology of organ systems with emphasis on control and integration of system function. Experiments using humans and selected vertebrate animal models are performed in the laboratory to illustrate functional characteristics of organ systems discussed in lecture and to provide direct experience with techniques, recording systems, and methods of data analysis commonly used in physiology and related fields. Lecture three hours; laboratory three hours. Fee course.

Fee course.

BIO 131A.     Advanced Problems in Physiology. 1 Unit

Corequisite(s): BIO 131


Advanced problem-solving in physiology designed for students concurrently enrolled in BIO 131. Students explore solutions to challenging problem sets under the direct supervision of an experienced section leader. Discussion: two hours.

Credit/No Credit

BIO 132.     Neurophysiology. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 131 or both BIO 25 and BIO 26.


Organization and function of the nervous system will be explored. Topics include mechanisms of communication between neurons, integration of sensory and motor systems, and functional brain systems. Diseased states will be introduced, as appropriate. Lecture 3 hours.

BIO 133.     Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Renal Physiology. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 131.


Advanced consideration of the integrated physiology of the cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal systems, including acid-base physiology. Advanced problem-solving, analysis of case studies, and interpretation of experimental findings will be included. Lecture three hours.

BIO 134.     Medical Mycology. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 139.


Study of the morphology, cultural characteristics and classification of fungi which are pathogenic for humans, as well as fungi which appear as common contaminants. Lecture two hours; laboratory three hours. Fee course.

Fee course.

BIO 135.     Endocrinology. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 121.


Advanced consideration of the principles of endocrinology with special emphasis on the role of hormones in growth, metabolism, stress (including the hormonal interactions during exercise) and disease. Various endocrine disorders, will serve as the model for case studies, current literature analysis and advanced problem-solving activities. Lecture three hours.

BIO 139.     General Microbiology. 4 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 184; CHEM 20 or CHEM 24


Introduction to microorganisms, particularly bacteria and viruses, their physiology and metabolism. Laboratory work includes aseptic techniques, methods of cultivating and identifying bacteria, and demonstration of microbial properties. Lecture three hours; laboratory three hours. Fee course.

Fee course.

BIO 140.     Medical Microbiology and Emerging Infectious Diseases. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 39 or BIO 139.


Lectures, discussions, and readings regarding infectious viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites, with an emphasis on highly relevant pathogens including emerging infectious agents and microbes that are regionally endemic. The clinical syndrome, along with the molecular and cellular aspects of the course of infection of each pathogen will be discussed. Additionally, the history of microbiology and medicine as well as a brief overview of laboratory methods used for diagnosis will also be covered. Lecture three hours.

Note: BIO 140 cannot substitute for BIO 144 in the CLS concentration in Biological Sciences.

BIO 143.     General Virology. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 121 and BIO 139


Lectures and demonstrations on the fundamental characteristics and properties of plant, animal and bacterial viruses. Lecture three hours.

BIO 144.     Pathogenic Bacteriology. 4 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 139.


Morphological, physiological and immunological characteristics of pathogenic bacteria. In the laboratory, pure culture studies are emphasized. Lecture two hours; laboratory six hours. Fee course.

Fee course.

BIO 145.     The Diversity of Microorganisms. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 139.


Isolation, cultivation and characterization of a wide variety of soil and water microbes from natural habitats using the elective enrichment technique; natural habitats also will be examined directly for the numbers and varieties of microbes which are present. Lecture two hours; laboratory three hours. Fee course.

Fee course.

BIO 149A.     Immunology. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 121 and BIO 139


Nature of antigens, antibodies and their reactions. The development of the immune response and its role in immunity and pathology. Lecture two hours.

BIO 149B.     Immunology and Serology Laboratory. 1 Unit

Prerequisite(s): BIO 139, BIO 149A.


Laboratory exercises designed to provide familiarity with common clinical laboratory procedures in serology. Laboratory three hours. Fee course.

Fee course.

BIO 149C.     Advanced Problems in Immunology. 1 Unit

Prerequisite(s): BIO 139 and CHEM 161.

Corequisite(s): BIO 149A.


Advanced problem-solving in immunology designed for students concurrently enrolled in BIO 149A. Discussions and problem sets are focused on the medical, clinical, and biotechnology applications of immunology. Discussion one hour.

Credit/No Credit

BIO 150.     Forensic Biology. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 1, BIO 2 and BIO 184.


Principles governing the application of biology and biological statistics to solve crimes. Topics include evidence examination and preservation, presumptive and confirmatory serological tests, hair comparison, generation and statistical analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA profiles, structure and administration of the modern crime laboratory, and the role of the criminalist in the U.S. court system. Lecture two hours; laboratory three hours.

Note: Not offered every semester

BIO 151.     Advanced Laboratory Techniques in Forensic Biology. 2 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 150 or instructor permission.


Laboratory exercises focusing on current research problems and skills in forensic serology, DNA typing, and court testimony. Topics will include DNA mixture and low copy number interpretation, advanced techniques in serological testing, research ethics, as well as skills for effective communication in the courtroom. Topics may also include Y-STR typing, animal and plant DNA identification and typing, microbial forensics, somatic mosaicism, ELISA specificity and sensitivity testing, and other current areas of active inquiry. Designed to prepare students for entry level positions as DNA analysts in federal, state, and local crime laboratories. Laboratory six hours. Fee course.

Fee course.

BIO 152.     Human Parasitology. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 1 and BIO 2.


Examines, in detail, the most important species of protozoans, flukes, tapeworms and roundworms that infect humans. Life cycles, pathology and prophylaxis constitute the principal topics in lectures. Morphology, physiology, taxonomy and diagnosis constitute the principal topics in the laboratory. Lecture two hours; laboratory three hours. Fee course.

Fee course.

BIO 156.     Food Microbiology. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 139.


Microbiology of food fermentations, food preservation and spoilage. Lecture two hours; laboratory three hours. Fee course.

Fee course.

BIO 157.     General Entomology. 4 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 1 and BIO 2.


Biology of insects and a brief consideration of other terrestrial arthropods. Includes structure, physiology, ecology, classification, economic importance, collection and preservation of insects. Lecture three hours; laboratory three hours. Fee course.

Fee course.

BIO 160.     General Ecology. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 10 or both BIO 1 and BIO 2; STAT 1.


Examination of the interrelationships among organisms and their environments. Designed for the major in Biological Sciences or related fields. Topics include the structure and function of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, population and community dynamics and human effects on ecosystems. Projects and field trips required. Lecture two hours; laboratory three hours. Fee course.

Fee course.

Field trip(s) may be required.

BIO 162.     Ichthyology: The Study of Fishes. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 1 and BIO 2.


Biology of fishes: structure, physiology, ecology, economic importance, propagation and classification. Methods of identification, life history study, propagation, collection and preservation. Lecture two hours; laboratory three hours. Field trips may be required. Fee course.

Fee course.

Field trip(s) may be required.

BIO 164.     Amphibians and Reptiles: An Introduction to Herpetology. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 1 and BIO 2.


Taxonomy, natural history, ecology and distribution of amphibians and reptiles with emphasis on local forms. Lecture two hours; laboratory three hours. Field trips may be required. Fee course.

Fee course.

Field trip(s) may be required.

BIO 166.     Ornithology. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 1 and BIO 2.


Biology of birds: structure, physiology, ecology, behavior, and classification. Methods of life history study, ecological studies, laboratory and field identification. Lecture two hours; laboratory three hours. Field trips required. Fee course.

Fee course.

Field trip(s) may be required.

BIO 167.     Quantitative Methods in Biology. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): STAT 1 and BIO 100 or graduate status


Focuses on statistical hypothesis testing and experimental design in the biological sciences. Topics include the development of a hypothesis, study design and implementation, management and presentation of data, identification of data types, and appropriate use of statistical procedures. General application to a wide range of biological disciplines and will emphasize the scientific process, critical thinking skills, and the interpretation of statistical results, which will include a project culminating a scientific paper and presentation. Lecture two hours; laboratory three hours.

BIO 168.     Mammalogy. 4 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 1 and BIO 2.


Biology of mammals: structure, physiology, ecology, behavior, classification. Methods of life history, laboratory and field identification, collection and preservation. Lecture three hours; laboratory three hours. Field trips required. Fee course.

Fee course.

Field trip(s) may be required.

BIO 169.     Animal Behavior. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 1 and BIO 2.


Introduction to the fascinating world of why animals do the things that they do. Focus is on the evolution and function of animal behavior through understanding the costs and benefits of different behavior including foraging, fighting and reproduction. Lecture two hours; laboratory three hours. Fee course.

Fee course.

BIO 170.     Advanced Nutrition and Metabolism. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): CHEM 161, FACS 113; or instructor permission.


Study of the physiologic function of carbohydrates, lipids, protein and micronutrients including integrated metabolism, transport, regulation and relation to inborn errors/chronic disease. Introduction to gene-nutrient interaction. Cross Listed: FACS 170; only one may be counted for credit.

BIO 173.     Principles of Fisheries Biology. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 160, STAT 1.


Introduction to the biological principles basic to fisheries science, including enumeration, recruitment, growth, abundance and mortality. Mathematics, computer modeling, and field methods will be used to understand natural populations and the impact of fishing on those populations in keeping with modern approaches to fisheries science which are grounded in population ecology and conservation biology. Lecture two hours; laboratory three hours. Fee course.

Fee course.

BIO 178.     Molecular Ecology. 4 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 184

Corequisite(s): BIO 188


A survey of the use of molecular tools to understand ecological questions. Lecture will focus on the background and history of the use of molecular tools in ecological settings, including application of molecular tools to conservation of natural resources. Laboratory will include techniques for both wet lab and analysis of molecular data, including interpretation of results. Students will complete a capstone-style project that will culminate in the production of a research proposal.

BIO 179.     Principles of Wildlife Management. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 160, BIO 166, BIO 168, or instructor permission.


Principles for analyzing, controlling and manipulating wildlife populations and/or the ecological factors of their habitat. Lecture two hours; laboratory and fieldwork three hours. Fee course.

Fee course.

BIO 180.     Advanced Molecular Biology. 4 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 121 and BIO 184.


Examination of the structure of genes and genomes, the mechanisms by which they change, and the use of evolutionary relationships to understand function. Mechanisms of the regulation of gene expression from gene to phenotype and the tools used o study these processes. Applications of molecular tools in medicine and biotechnology and the ethics around these approaches. Lecture two hours, laboratory six hours.

BIO 183.     Cancer Biology. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 121 and BIO 184.


Study of cancer from the molecular level to the effect on whole tissues and organs. Topics to be covered include the classification and nomenclature of cancers, the process leading up to the formation of a cancer, the possible causes of cancer, and possible treatment. Lecture two hours.

BIO 183A.     Advanced Problems in Cancer Biology. 1 Unit

Prerequisite(s): BIO 121 and BIO 184 and BIO 183 or instructor permission; BIO 183 may be taken concurrently


Literature searches and discussions are focused on medical, clinical, and biotechnological applications of Cancer Biology.

BIO 184.     General Genetics. 4 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 1 and BIO 2; declared major in Biological Sciences, Biochemistry, Chemistry or instructor consent


Principles of inheritance as they relate to microorganisms, plants, animals and humans. Genetic mechanisms are analyzed according to evidence derived from both classical and current research. The nature, structure, and function of the genome are considered at the molecular level. Lecture three hours; laboratory three hours. Fee course.

Fee course.

BIO 185.     Topics in Biology. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 10 or both BIO 1 and BIO 2; CHEM 20.


Current topics in cellular, developmental and/or molecular biology. Topics will vary. May be taken more than once provided that topics are different. Lecture three hours.

BIO 186A.     Cell and Molecular Biology Seminar. 1 Unit

Prerequisite(s): BIO 10 or both BIO 1 and BIO 2.


Series of at least 10 seminars in cell and molecular biology. Topics within each seminar will vary each semester.

Note: May be repeated for credit. No more than one unit of BIO 186 may be counted toward the upper division major requirement.

Credit/No Credit

BIO 186B.     Ecological and Environmental Issues Seminar. 1 Unit

Prerequisite(s): BIO 10 or both BIO 1 and BIO 2.


Series of at least 10 seminars in ecological and environmental issues. Topics within each seminar will vary each semester.

Note: May be repeated for credit. No more than one unit of BIO 186 may be counted toward the upper division major requirement. Cross Listed: ENVS 186B; only one may be counted for credit.

Credit/No Credit

BIO 186C.     Introduction to Health Careers Seminar. 1 Unit


Designed for pre-health professional students who are in the process of researching traditional and non-traditional health professions and careers. This course consists of at least 10 seminars presented by various practicing health professionals, health professional students, and health professional school admissions officers. Topics vary each semester. One hour per week.

Credit/No Credit

BIO 187.     Advanced Cell Biology. 4 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 121 and BIO 184.


Advanced cellular and molecular biology of eukaryotic cells. Comparison to prokaryotic organism will be made as needed to illustrate key concepts. Emphasis will be placed on cellular functions and utilize two or more cellular systems; including cell to cell communication, regulation of gene expression, uptake and secretion, regulation of cytoskeletal configuration, cell migration and cellular reproduction. Lecture two hours, laboratory six hours.

BIO 188.     Evolution. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 184 or instructor permission.


General survey of evolutionary processes: mechanisms of evolutionary change, adaptation and history of life. Designed for biological sciences majors. Lecture three hours.

BIO 194.     Biology-Related Work Experience. 6 - 12 Units


Supervised employment in a biology or biology-related company or agency arranged through the Department of Biological Sciences and the Cooperative Education Program office. Requires preparation of application packet, completion of a three to six month, full-time or part-time work assignment, and a written report.

Note: Open only to upper division or graduate students with appropriate preparation. Consent of Department Cooperative Education Committee required, and Committee will determine the number of units to be granted. Students may enroll for no more than 12 total units, and units may not be used to meet biology major or graduate course work requirements.

Credit/No Credit

BIO 195.     Biological Internship. 1 - 2 Units

Prerequisite(s): Department chair and instructor (representing the appropriate biological discipline) permission.


Supervised work-learn experience in biology with a public or private organization. Up to 4 units may be taken. No more than 2 units from BIO 195, BIO 197 and BIO 199 combined can be applied to the biological sciences upper division major requirement.

Credit/No Credit

BIO 195D.     Dental Internship. 1 - 2 Units

Prerequisite(s): Department chair and instructor (representing the appropriate preprofessional discipline) permission.


Supervised non-paid internship experience in the medical-related and business-related aspects of dentistry. Includes a volunteer experience in the community. No more than 2 units from BIO 195, BIO 197 and BIO 199 combined can be applied to the biological sciences upper division major requirement.

Note: 1 unit = 40 hours of participation/semester and 2 units = 80 hours of participation/semester; May be repeated for up to 4 units of credit .

Credit/No Credit

BIO 195M.     Medical Internship. 2 Units

Prerequisite(s): Department Chair, Instructor and Placement Agency's permission required.


Supervised non-paid internship experience in multiple aspects of health care. Includes a volunteer experience in the community, supplemental readings, and a presentation on current issues in medicine and health education. No more than 2 units of BIO 195, BIO 197 and BIO 199 combined may be applied to the Biological Sciences upper division major requirement.

Note: 80 hours of participation/semester

Credit/No Credit

BIO 195P.     Pharmacy Internship. 1 - 2 Units

Prerequisite(s): Department Chair, Instructor, and Placement Agency permission required.


Supervised non-paid internship experience in pharmacy. Includes a volunteer experience in the community. No more than 2 units from BIO 195, BIO 197 and Bio 199 combined can be applied to the biological sciences upper division major requirement. May be repeated for up to 4 units of credit. 1.0-2.0 units (40-80 hours of participation/semester).

Credit/No Credit

BIO 195T.     Teaching Internship. 1 - 2 Units

Prerequisite(s): Department chair and instructor permission.


Supervised non-paid internship experience in K-12 teaching. Includes regular meetings with supervising teacher and submission of a field experience journal. May be repeated for credit.

Note: No more than 2 units from BIO 195, 197 and 199 combined can be applied to the biological sciences upper division major requirement.

Credit/No Credit

BIO 197A.     Laboratory Teaching Assistant. 1 - 2 Units

Prerequisite(s): Department Chair and instructor permission.


Supervised experiences will include aspects of laboratory preparation and aspects of teaching biology laboratory courses. Conferences and laboratory experiences four to eight hours weekly. Admission requires approval of professor and Department Chair.

Note: May be taken more than once, but no more than 2 units from BIO 195, BIO 197 and BIO 199 combined can be applied to the Biological Sciences upper division major requirement.

BIO 197B.     Laboratory Techniques. 1 - 2 Units

Prerequisite(s): Department Chair and instructor permission.


Supervised laboratory experiences for advanced students in the organization and techniques for operation of a basic sciences laboratory. Conferences and laboratory experiences four to eight hours weekly. Admission requires approval of professor and Department Chair.

Note: May be taken more than once, but no more than 2 units from BIO 195, BIO 197 and BIO 199 combined can be applied to the Biological Sciences upper division major requirement.

Credit/No Credit

BIO 197C.     Co-curricular Activities in Biology. 1 - 2 Units


Students may earn BIO 197C credit by participating as tutors and/or section or discussion leaders for biological sciences classes or teaching as voluntary instructors or tutors in K-12 courses or programs offered by other community organizations. Participation requires four to eight hours weekly. Admission requires approval of professor and Department Chair.

Note: May be taken more than once, but no more than 2 units from BIO 195, BIO 197 and BIO 199 combined can be applied to the Biological Sciences upper division major requirement.

Credit/No Credit

BIO 197D.     Advanced Laboratory Exploration. 1 - 2 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 197A and instructor permission.


Advanced, supervised experiences that explore the science behind laboratory experiences and discussion regarding aspects of specific laboratories that promote understanding of scientific content. Conferences and laboratory experiences four to eight hours weekly; written assignments and/or oral presentations required. Admission requires approval of professor and Department Chair.

Note: No more than 2 units from BIO 195, BIO 197, BIO 199 combined may be applied to the Biological Sciences upper division major requirement.

BIO 197E.     Intermediate Lab Techniques. 1 - 2 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 197B and instructor or Department Chair permission


Supervised laboratory experiences for skilled students in the organization and techniques for operation of a basic sciences laboratory. Conferences and laboratory experiences four to eight hours weekly. Admission requires approval of instructor and Department Chair.

Note: May be taken more than once, but no more than 2 units from BIO 195, BIO 197 and BIO 199 combined may be applied to the Biological Sciences upper division major requirement.

Credit/No Credit

BIO 197F.     Advanced Lab Techniques. 1 - 2 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 197B and instructor permission.


Advanced supervised laboratory experiences for skilled students in the organization and techniques for operation of a basic sciences laboratory. Conferences and laboratory experiences four to eight hours weekly. Admission requires approval of instructor and Department Chair.

Note: May be taken more than once; no more than 2 units from BIO 195, BIO 197 and BIO 199 combined may be applied to the Biological Sciences upper division major requirement.

Credit/No Credit

BIO 198A.     Honors Proseminar and Research. 2 Units

Prerequisite(s): Open only to honors students in biological sciences who have an overall GPA of 3.25 and a minimum of 3.0 GPA in biology courses (at least six units of upper division biology excluding BIO 106, BIO 108, BIO 194, BIO 195, BIO 197 and BIO 199).


Contemporary topics in biology selected by students in the course will form the basis for an introduction to scientific journals, the scientific method, and research as a professional pursuit. Each student develops a refined research proposal and prepares a seminar summarizing the proposal and the current state of knowledge in the topic area. Students will develop and refine their methodology under the direction of a faculty sponsor.

BIO 198B.     Honors Research and Seminar. 2 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 198A.


Directed research involving completion of an independently conducted research project for which a proposal and methodology was developed in BIO 198A. Data collection, summary and analysis, and formulation of conclusions based on the data will be discussed periodically with a faculty sponsor. Culmination will consist of preparation of an undergraduate thesis, poster and presentation of a seminar summarizing results and conclusions.

Note: Open only to honors students in Biological Sciences. Fee course.

Fee course.

BIO 199A.     Introductory Undergraduate Research. 1 - 2 Units

Prerequisite(s): Department Chair and instructor permission.


Student conducts introductory, independent laboratory or field research on an original question. Research must culminate in a formal report. Weekly meetings may be required. Students must have a research prospectus approved by faculty mentor and Department Chair.

Note: May be taken more than once, no more than 2 units from BIO 195, BIO 197 and BIO 199 combined may be applied to the Biological Sciences upper division major requirement.

BIO 199B.     Directed Readings. 1 - 2 Units

Prerequisite(s): Department Chair and instructor permission.


Directed Readings on a topic in Biology culminating in a research paper. Admission requires submission of a prospectus approved by the faculty member under whom the work is to be conducted and the Department Chair.

Note: May be taken more than once, but no more than 2 units from BIO 195, BIO 197 and BIO 199 combined can be applied to the Biological Sciences upper division major requirement.

BIO 199C.     Intermediate Undergraduate Research. 1 - 2 Units

Prerequisite(s): Department Chair and instructor permission.


Student conducts independent laboratory or field research on an original question. Research must culminate in a formal report. Weekly meetings may be required. Students must have a research prospectus approved by faculty mentor and Department Chair.

Note: May be taken more than once; no more than 2 units from BIO 195, BIO 197 and BIO 199 combined may be applied to the Biological Sciences upper division major requirement.

BIO 199D.     Advanced Undergraduate Research. 1 - 2 Units

Prerequisite(s): Department Chair and instructor permission.


Advanced laboratory or field research on an original question. The research must culminate in a formal report. Weekly meetings may be required. Students must have a prospectus approved by the faculty member and the Department Chair.

Note: May be taken more than once; no more than 2 units from BIO 195, BIO 197 and BIO 199 combined may be applied to the Biological Sciences upper division major requirement.

BIO 214.     Advanced Plant Ecology. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 160.


Fundamental properties of plant populations; population regulation; community productivity and structure; a study of ecotypic and ecoclinal variation in plant populations. Lecture one hour; laboratory and field six hours.

BIO 220.     Introduction to Scientific Inquiry. 2 Units


Graduate level introduction to scientific inquiry in the biological sciences. Students learn to apply the scientific method, critically evaluate the scientific literature, initiate their graduate project, and develop written and oral scientific presentation skills. Lecture two hours.

Note: Graduate Writing Intensive (GWI).

BIO 221A.     Cell and Molecular Methods and Techniques. 2 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 220 (may be taken concurrently).


Introduction to research methods in molecular and cellular biology. Students learn both cell and molecular techniques in the context of hypothesis-driven research to answer questions relating to a specific gene and cellular system. Experimental design and commonly used laboratory techniques will be explored. Two three hour laboratory periods. Fee course.

Fee course.

BIO 221B.     Methods in Ecology, Evolution and Conservation. 2 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 167, BIO 220 (may be taken concurrently).


Introduction to research methods in ecology, evolution and conservation biology. Students learn field and laboratory techniques with a variety to taxa in a range of local ecosystems. Students will work with several faculty conducting research projects. Topics will include developing hypotheses, experimental design, study implementation, and statistical analyses. Students will be expected to present findings in oral and written form. Two three hour laboratory periods. Fee course.

Fee course.

BIO 221C.     Exploration of Biological Methodology. 3 Units


Intended for students in the MA grant proposal track, this course explores a selected topic from multiple scientific perspectives. A discovery-based laboratory project using cell and molecular techniques complimented with lectures, discussions and field trips that investigate the ecological, environmental, and evolutionary aspects of the same topic. The laboratory project will focus on a current biological topic (such as genetically modified organisms) in accordance with the instructor's interests and expertise. One hour lecture, six hours lab per week.

Note: Not open to students in the Master of Science in Molecular and Cellular Biology Concentration.

Field trip(s) may be required.

BIO 222.     Molecular Biology. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 184, CHEM 161.


Processes and control of DNA replication, transcription, and translation developed from a consideration of the current literature. Lecture three hours.

BIO 223.     Human Molecular Genetics. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 184 and CHEM 161.


In-depth study of the molecular basis of human disease, emphasizing current experimental approaches and technologies. Topics include the isolation and analysis of disease genes, the influence of teratogans and random environmental events on human embryonic development, the molecular and biochemical consequences of mutagenesis, and ethical issues that currently surround the field. Lecture 3 hours.

BIO 224.     Genomics, Proteomics, and Bioinformatics. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 184, BIO 222 and graduate status or instructor permission.


Examination of current approaches in structural genomics, functional genomics and proteomics, and the bioinformatics tools utilized to understand genome organization, the regulation of gene expression, gene function and the evolutionary relationships within and between genomes. Lecture two hours; laboratory 3 hours.

BIO 225.     Stem Cell Biology and Manufacturing Practices. 1 Unit

Prerequisite(s): Graduate status and instructor permission.


Graduate level introductory course in human stem cell biology with specific emphasis on adult, embryonic, and induced pluripotent stem cells. Topics will include how stem cells are isolated or generated, how they are cultured, and how they are used for regenerative therapies. In addition, students will learn about Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) and how to manufacture human stem cells.

BIO 227.     Development and Regenerative Medicine. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): Graduate status and instructor permission.


Examines the processes of cellular development in the embryo and adult with a focus on stem cells. Stem cells will be studied at the biochemical, molecular, genetic, epigenetic, cellular and physiological level, with an emphasis on their roles in promoting organismal health and disease. Current research and clinical applications will be examined, along with the bioethics, policies and politics of their use.

BIO 245.     Host/Pathogen Interactions. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 121, BIO 139, BIO 184.


Critical reading and discussion of current literature on host/pathogen interactions. Topics to be covered include: alteration of host intracellular trafficking, subversion of cell cytoskeleton for invasion, intracellular survival mechanisms, pathogen-induced cell killing, and evasion and subversion of the host immune system. Courses recommended but not required: BIO 144, BIO 149, BIO 180.

BIO 247.     Contemporary Topics in Immunology. 2 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 149A or instructor permission.


Readings and discussions of current literature emphasizing new field developments and controversies. Lecture two hours.

BIO 260.     Advanced Ecology. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 160 or equivalent.


Principles and applications of theoretical and field ecology as they apply to populations, communities and ecosystems.

BIO 269.     Behavioral Ecology. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 160 or instructor permission.


Advanced study of animal behavior focusing on the life history consequences of social organization, spacing systems, sexual behavior, reproductive ecology, feeding ecology, competitive interactions and predator-prey interactions.

BIO 273.     Advanced Fishery Biology and Management. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 173 or instructor permission.


Critical review and evaluation of current techniques and concepts relating to the management, protection, and improvement of fishery resources. Lecture three hours.

BIO 279.     Conservation Biology and Wildlife Management. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 160, BIO 179; or instructor permission.


Critical review of applications of ecological and wildlife-orientated theory in conservation biology research. Exploration of key topics and issues in conservation of organisms, with emphasis on vertebrate animals and plants. Lecture/discussion three hours.

BIO 282.     Evolution. 3 Units


Process of evolution throughout the taxonomic hierarchy and factors responsible for the generation of variability of the gene, cell, organism and population levels are explored through lectures, text readings and a survey of current periodical literature. Lecture 3 hours.

BIO 283.     Biogeography. 3 Units


Study of the past and present plant and animal distributions, and the geologic, climatic and ecologic factors involved in their migration, establishment and extinction. Lecture/discussions three hours.

BIO 285.     Topics in Biology. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): Graduate status or instructor permission.


Readings and discussions of current literature emphasizing new developments and controversies in a comparatively narrow range of biological topics. Topics will vary with each offering, encompassing one recognized specialty in biology. May be repeated for credit when the topics vary.

BIO 293.     Research Conference. 2 Units

Prerequisite(s): Department Chair and instructor permission.


Presentation and discussion of graduate student and faculty research and current literature with emphasis on critical evaluation of research design, data analysis and presentation techniques.

Note: Discussion two hours. May be taken twice for credit. Only two units may be applied to the University's requirement for 200-level courses; May be repeated for up to 4 units of credit.

Credit/No Credit

BIO 294A.     Seminar in Molecular and Cellular Biology. 1 Unit

Prerequisite(s): Student must be a Biology major at the master's level to enroll in this class and/or have instructor permission.


Review and discussion of scientific literature in cell and molecular biology. Seminar topics will vary by semester.

Note: May be repeated for up to 4 units of credit.

Credit/No Credit

BIO 294B.     Seminar in Ecology, Evolution and Conservation. 1 Unit

Prerequisite(s): Student must be a Biology major at the master's level to enroll in this class and/or have instructor permission.


Review and discussion of scientific literature in ecology, evolution, and conservation biology. Seminar topics will vary by semester.

Note: May be repeated for up to 4 units of credit.

Credit/No Credit

BIO 297A.     Teaching Biology Seminar. 1 Unit

Prerequisite(s): Acceptance in the GTA Program or instructor permission.


Training for graduate students who wish to participate in the Department's Graduate Teaching Associate (GTA) Program and others interested in teaching biology. Weekly seminar session covering aspects of teaching biology laboratories. Lecture/discussion. Not applicable toward 18 unit 200-level course work requirement.

Credit/No Credit

BIO 297B.     Laboratory Teaching. 1 Unit

Prerequisite(s): Acceptance in the GTA Program or instructor permission.


Training for graduate students admitted to the Graduate Teaching Associate (GTA) Program. Students assist in teaching three hours of biology laboratory weekly under the supervision of a laboratory instructor. Laboratory three hours. Not applicable toward 18 unit 200-level coursework requirement.

Credit/No Credit

BIO 299.     Problems in Biological Sciences. 1 - 4 Units


Library research, short-term original research, technique development, or thesis research site selection and preliminary field observations. Culminating experience will be in the format of a scientific paper, annotated bibliography, demonstration of technique mastery, or oral presentation. Enrollment requires classified graduate status and approval of the project by a faculty supervisor and the Department Chair.

Credit/No Credit

BIO 500.     Master's Thesis. 4 Units

Prerequisite(s): Advanced to candidacy and chair permission of his/her thesis committee.


Completion of a thesis approved for the Master's degree. Should be taken in final semester prior to the completion of all requirements for the degree.

BIO 502.     Master's Project. 2 Units

Prerequisite(s): Advanced to candidacy and chair permission of his/her committee.


Completion of a written project based on a research problem in biology approved for the Master of Arts Degree. Should be taken in final semester prior to the completion of all requirements for the degree.

BIO 633.     Human Gross Anatomy for Physical Therapists. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): BIO 22 or instructor permission.

Corequisite(s): PT 600, PT 602, PT 608, PT 630.


Study of the gross anatomy of selected regions of the human body. Emphasis will be placed on musculoskeletal, neurovascular and anatomy of the joints of the back, thoracic wall, abdominal wall, upper limb and lower limb. Anatomical relationships will be reinforced through study of cross-sectional anatomy. Lecture two hours; lab three hours.

Note: Course designed for students enrolled in the Doctor of Physical Therapy Program.