Economics

College of Social Sciences and Interdisciplinary Studies

Program Description

Economics is a social science that examines the functioning of markets, the determination of prices and distribution of income, and the determination of the overall level of income and rates of unemployment and inflation. In addition, Economics deals with various social problems. The Economics major at Sacramento State is designed to provide students with a liberal education with special emphasis on the economic aspects of society, on familiarization with techniques for the analysis of contemporary economic problems, developing the ability to think critically, and to conceptualize and to possess the communication and computer skills to evaluate private and public policy issues.

The Economics program is appealing to students due to the quality of its faculty, the breadth of its course offerings, and the amount of choice it offers the student in planning his or her coursework. In addition to training in the traditional economics areas, the program offers such diverse courses as the California economy, state and local finance, energy, environmental and resource economics, and urban economics. Students find the Department of Economics congenial to their educational and career objectives.

A minor in Economics may be especially attractive to students majoring in Business Administration, Government, and Environmental Studies or in one of the other Social Science disciplines. The Economics minor adds both theoretical and analytical depth. In addition, it provides the historical and institutional background important to an understanding of contemporary economic issues. It offers students in other majors a broader-based undergraduate education while widening the choice of job possibilities. Employers view the minor in Economics favorably.

Special Features

  • Students in the Sacramento State Economics program benefit from a wide range of opportunities to work in the private and public sectors. The Economics Department offers internships for academic credit to students who are interested in the application of economics in the private and public sectors. This kind of practical experience enhances employment opportunities after graduation.
  • Former Sacramento State Economics students are working at all levels of government and in many private businesses in the fields of finance, real estate, professional services, etc. Some are in the teaching profession, K-12 and community colleges, while others have continued their studies toward  a Masters degree or a Ph.D. at such institutions as Notre Dame, Washington University at St. Louis, the University of Pittsburgh, University of California, Santa Cruz, Johns Hopkins University, and University of California, Davis.
  • The Sacramento State Economics faculty is diverse in areas of specialization and draws upon both its advanced academic training and practical experience. Faculty members have published articles, papers, and books, and enjoy reputations as experts in their fields. Besides providing a reputable and experienced faculty, the Economics Department offers personal advising for students in the planning and meeting of academic and career goals.

Pre-Major Requirements

Freshman or transfer students interested in the Economics Major are admitted as Pre-Major Economics students.

To change to an Economics major, all students are required to complete the following grade and course requirements and submit a Declaration of Major form to the Economics Department along with transcript copies:

  1. An overall GPA of 2.0 and be in good academic standing.
  2. Completion of the Pre-Major Required Courses with a "C" or better in each course. Only first or second attempts will be considered.

Career Possibilities

Actuary · Advertising Executive · Auditor· Bank Officer · Bond Trader · Budget Analyst · Business Forecaster · Business Manager· College Professor · Commodity Price Forecaster · Cost Analyst · Credit Analyst/Loan Officer · Demographer· Economic Forecaster ·  Energy Economist · Entrepreneur · Estate Planner  · Financial Analyst/Planner · Financial Officer · Government Administrator · Healthcare Administrator · Human Resources Administrator · Industrial/Institutional Buyer · Industry Analyst ·  Information Scientist · Insurance Salesperson · Intelligence Agent · International Trade Specialist · Journalist · Labor Relations Specialist · Lawyer · Litigation Analyst · Management Consultant/Analyst · Market Research ·  Analyst · Natural Resource Economist · Policy Analyst · Politician · Public Utilities Manager · Real Estate Agent/Broker · Sales Manager ·  Securities Salesperson/Broker · Statistician · Teacher · Technical Writer Transportation Specialist · Underwriter · Urban/Regional Planner

Contact Information

David Lang, Department Chair
Sharon Jordan, Administrative Support Coordinator
Tahoe Hall 3028
(916) 278-6223
www.csus.edu/econ

Faculty

CHALMERS, KATHERINE

DUBE, SMILE

FORD, TIMOTHY

GALLET, CRAIG

HOWELL, JESSICA

KAPLAN, JONATHAN

KIESEL, KRISTIN

LANG, DAVID

O'KEEFE, SUZANNE

ONUR, ESEN

PEREZ, STEPHEN

SEXTON, TERRI A.

SIEGLER, MARK

VAN GAASBECK, KRISTIN

WANG, TA-CHEN

ZHOU, YAN

 

Undergraduate Programs

Students planning ahead for graduate work in Economics should consult an advisor regarding additional and/or focused coursework in mathematics, statistics, and computer science.

The Department schedules courses so that the upper division requirements for the BA can be completed at night within two academic years. Evening students should contact the Department for assistance in planning a two-year program. Failure to do so may mean a delay in graduation due to scheduling problems.

BA Degree in Economics

Units required for Major: 42-45
Minimum total units required for BA: 120

Pre-Major Required Courses (12 Units)
ECON 1AIntroduction to Macroeconomic Analysis3
ECON 1BIntroduction to Microeconomic Analysis3
MATH 24Modern Business Mathematics3
STAT 1Introduction to Statistics3
Required Upper Division Courses (15 Units)
ECON 100AIntermediate Macroeconomic Theory3
ECON 100BIntermediate Microeconomic Theory3
ECON 101History of Economic Thought3
or ECON 113 Economic History of the United States
ECON 140Quantitative Economic Analysis3
ECON 145Economic Research Methods3
Electives (18 Units)
Select 18 units of upper division Economics courses 118
Total Units45
1

Additional upper division courses in Economics, selected in consultation with a faculty advisor.

Notes:

  • Minimum grade of "C" required in all courses listed above.
  • ECON 145 must be completed in the student's graduating semester. The following must be completed prior to enrolling in ECON 145:
    ECON 100AIntermediate Macroeconomic Theory3
    ECON 100BIntermediate Microeconomic Theory3
    ECON 140Quantitative Economic Analysis3
  • MATH 24 requirement can be met by completing MATH 26A or MATH 30 or through a challenge exam.
  • MATH 26A or MATH 30, or an upper division course in math or statistics, selected in consultation with an advisor, may also substitute for three of the 33 upper division units in Economics.
  • ECON 104 does not meet major requirements.
  • No more than 3 units total of the following may be included in the 33 total required upper division units:
    ECON 195Economic Internship1 - 3
    ECON 198Tutoring in Economics1 - 3
    ECON 199Special Problems1 - 3
  • No more than 3 units from the following set of courses may be used to meet the requirements of the Economics major:
    ECON 112European Economic History3
    ECON 120Economics and Environmental Degradation3
    ECON 181Economics of Racism 3
    ECON 184Women and the Economy3
    ECON 189Economics at the Movies3
  • Students planning graduate work in Economics should consult an advisor regarding additional coursework in mathematics, statistics, and computer science. The following are strongly recommended:
    ECON 141Introduction to Econometrics3
    MATH 26ACalculus I for the Social and Life Sciences3
    MATH 26BCalculus II for the Social and Life Sciences3

Minor in Economics

Units required: 21, twelve of which must be upper division Economics units. Specific course requirements are:

ECON 1AIntroduction to Macroeconomic Analysis3
ECON 1BIntroduction to Microeconomic Analysis3
Total Units6
1

STAT 1 may be counted toward the minor.

2

No more than 3 units of ECON 199 may be used to meet the Economic Minor requirements.

3

No more than 6 units from the following courses may be used to meet the Economic Minor requirements: ECON 112, ECON 120, ECON 181, ECON 184, and ECON 189.

Notes: The following cannot be used to meet the requirements of the Economics minor:

ECON 104Introduction to the United States Economy3
ECON 195Economic Internship1 - 3
ECON 198Tutoring in Economics1 - 3

Certificate - Economics Education

The Economics Education Certificate Program is designed to give participants a solid foundation in economics that will enable them to teach the subject in primary and secondary schools. The Certificate Program is intended for

  1. future or practicing teachers who desire credential authorization to teach the one-semester economics course required of all California public high school students; and
  2. future or practicing teachers who wish to infuse economics into other K-12 curricula.

Students majoring in Liberal Studies or Social Science or completing a teacher credential program are especially encouraged to participate.

The program consists of 15 units. A grade of “B” or higher must be obtained in each of these courses. Participants who are not enrolled in Sacramento State may take these courses through the College of Continuing Education. For more information about the program, contact: Director of the Center for Economic Education, Professor David M. Lang, (916) 278-7077.

Required Core Courses (9 Units)
ECON 1AIntroduction to Macroeconomic Analysis3
ECON 1BIntroduction to Microeconomic Analysis3
ECON 195Economic Internship 13
Elective Course (6 Units)
Select any two upper division economics course 26
Total Units15
1

The ECON 195 requirement will enable the student to serve as a Teaching Assistant to a professor teaching either ECON 1A or ECON 1B. Students must receive the permission of the Director of the Center for Economic Education prior to enrolling in ECON 195 for the Certificate program and will be assigned to a professor by the Director.

2

not including ECON 104

Graduate Program

The Master of Arts program in Economics is designed to assist students in developing the analytical skills and reflective capacities required to think clearly and coherently about economic matters and to apply their skill and knowledge effectively to problem areas. The program seeks to prepare students for careers in business, government, and education where applied skills are appropriate. To this end, the Department offers coursework and supervised study in economic theory, quantitative analysis, and a number of other fields of interest.

In line with the applied emphasis of the graduate program, the Department maintains a relationship with both the California state government and many private organizations in the Sacramento area. Recent graduates have gone on to jobs in government at all levels as well as to careers in labor unions, banks, manufacturing corporations, and other private organizations.

Admission Requirements

Admission as a classified graduate student in Economics requires:

  • a minimum 3.0 GPA in the last 60 units attempted;
  • a minimum 3.0 GPA in undergraduate Economics work;
  • ECON 100A (Intermediate Macroeconomic Theory) or equivalent; and ECON 100B (Intermediate Microeconomic Theory) or equivalent;
  • ECON 141 (Introduction to Econometrics) or equivalent;
  • MATH 26A (Calculus I) or equivalent; recommend MATH 26B (Calculus II) or equivalent;
  • Graduate Record Examination;
  • two letters of recommendation from undergraduate instructors;
  • a minimum score of 550 on the TOEFL (this requirement applies only to students earning degrees abroad whose primary language is not English); and
  • a baccalaureate degree.

Students not meeting the above requirements may be granted conditionally classified graduate status with permission of the Economics Department Graduate Committee, providing the applicant submits in writing the reasons why he/she desires graduate training and why the Committee should waive one or more of the above requirements. Students accepted on this basis may be required to complete a set of courses prior to beginning the Economics Graduate core, or to fulfill other conditions prior to approval for fully classified status. Failure to conform to this stipulation will result in the revocation of the conditionally classified status.

Admission Procedures

Applicants must complete a university application and also meet departmental requirements by the posted application deadline date for term applying. For more admission information and application deadlines, please visit http://www.csus.edu/gradstudies/. Admission based on the deadlines allows students to meet registration deadlines. Applications submitted after the above-mentioned deadlines will only be reviewed in the event that room for new students exists. All prospective graduate students, including Sacramento State graduates, must file the following documents with the Office of Graduate Studies, River Front Center 215, (916) 278-6470:

  • an online application for admission;
  • two sets of official transcripts from all colleges and universities attended, other than Sacramento State;
  • Graduate Record Examination (GRE) scores (verbal, quantitative, and analytical portion); and
  • TOEFL scores, if applicable.

In addition to the above documents, arrange for two letters of recommendation to be sent to the Economics Department. Any applicant not meeting the first three admission requirements as specified above should submit to the Department in writing his/her reasons for requesting a waiver of the admission requirements.

Approximately six weeks after receipt of all items listed above, a decision regarding admission will be mailed to the applicant.

Advancement to Candidacy

Each student must file an application for Advancement to Candidacy as soon as the graduate student has:

  • successfully completed the following, and with a minimum grade of "B":
    ECON 141Introduction to Econometrics3
    ECON 200AAdvanced Macroeconomic Theory3
    ECON 200BAdvanced Microeconomic Theory3
  • be enrolled, or have successfully completed ECON 200C;
  • been recommended for advancement by the Graduate Committee; and
  • taken the Writing Placement for Graduate Students (WPG) or taken a Graduate Writing Intensive (GWI) course in their discipline within the first two semesters of coursework at California State University, Sacramento or secured approval for a WPG waiver.

Advancement to Candidacy forms are available in the Office of Graduate Studies. The student fills out the form after planning a degree program in consultation with the Economics Department Graduate Coordinator. The completed form is then returned to the Office of Graduate Studies for approval.

MA Degree in Economics

Units required for MA: 30 units
Minimum 3.0 GPA
The following cannot be used as part of the 30 units toward the master's degree:

ECON 112European Economic History3
ECON 120Economics and Environmental Degradation3
ECON 181Economics of Racism 3
ECON 184Women and the Economy3
ECON 189Economics at the Movies3
ECON 195Economic Internship1 - 3
ECON 198Tutoring in Economics1 - 3
ECON 199Special Problems1 - 3
ECON 204Business Economics3

All students are required to complete the core course sequence outlined below with a minimum grade of "B" in each course. After completing the core courses, the student selects a thesis plan to finish the degree requirements. The core courses, as well as the thesis, are outlined below.

Core Courses (15 Units)
ECON 200AAdvanced Macroeconomic Theory3
ECON 200BAdvanced Microeconomic Theory3
ECON 200CAdvanced Applied Economics3
ECON 200MMathematics for Economists3
ECON 241Applied Econometric Analysis3
Other Requirements (12 Units)
Select 12 units of electives 112
Culminating Requirement (3 Units)
ECON 500Master's Thesis3
Total Units30
1

Of these 12 units, six units (i.e., 2 courses) must come from 200-level courses. Note the following:

  • There can be no 100-level/200-level duplication of similar courses (e.g., you cannot receive credit for ECON 130 and ECON 230, ECON 138 and ECON 238, etc.).
  • Selected courses (e.g., Math, Statistics, or Computer Science) from other departments may be allowed as substitutes with the approval of the Graduate Coordinator.
  • ECON 295 and ECON 298 do not count as electives toward satisfying the 12 unit requirement without the approval of the Graduate Coordinator.

How to Read Course Descriptions

ECON 1A.     Introduction to Macroeconomic Analysis. 3 Units

General Education Area/Graduation Requirement: GE AREA D


Introductory inquiry into the workings and interrelationships of the aggregate economic system. The primary focus is on total production and its distribution, employment and price levels, and the forces influencing them. Other considerations are the roles of government, the monetary sector, and related areas.

ECON 1B.     Introduction to Microeconomic Analysis. 3 Units

General Education Area/Graduation Requirement: GE AREA D


Introductory microeconomic analysis of the workings of supply and demand in the determination of price, resource allocation, and distribution. Markets are analyzed as they affect economic efficiency and income distribution.

ECON 100A.     Intermediate Macroeconomic Theory. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): ECON 1A, ECON 1B, and MATH 24 or MATH 26A or MATH 30 with a minimum "C" grade.


Analysis of the determinants of the aggregate level of output, income, employment and prices.

ECON 100B.     Intermediate Microeconomic Theory. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): ECON 1B and MATH 24 or MATH 26A or MATH 30 with a minimum "C" grade.


Analysis of household and firm behavior as the foundation of supply and demand.

ECON 101.     History of Economic Thought. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): ECON 1A, ECON 1B.


Analysis of the development of economic theory from the predecessors of Adam Smith through John Maynard Keynes. The contributions made to the discipline by its principal figures are compared and evaluated.

ECON 104.     Introduction to the United States Economy. 3 Units


One semester survey of the principles of economics, basic methods of economic analysis, and their application to public policy and current events.

Note: Not open to students who have had ECON 1A or ECON 1B or those majoring in economics.

ECON 110.     Cost Benefit Analysis. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): ECON 1B and MATH 24 or MATH 26A or MATH 30 with a minimum "C" grade.


Examines the rationale for government provision of goods and services and presents cost-benefit analysis as a method to evaluate public participation in a market economy.

ECON 112.     European Economic History. 3 Units

General Education Area/Graduation Requirement: Humanities (Area C2)


Analysis and evaluation of the economic forces and institutions shaping European economic development through the present period. Attention will be paid to the relationship between changes in the economic environment and attendant cultural, political, and ideological developments in the stages of tribalism, slavery, feudalism, capitalism, and socialism.

ECON 113.     Economic History of the United States. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): ECON 1A or ECON 104.


Consideration of the economic growth and development of the U.S. with emphasis on a theoretical analysis of the economic factors shaping the national destiny.

ECON 114.     The California Economy. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): ECON 1A and ECON 1B, or ECON 104.


Examination of the process of the development of the State's economy as well as analysis of the various public economic issues that are of contemporary concern to Californians.

ECON 120.     Economics and Environmental Degradation. 3 Units


Analyzes environmental issues as economic issues. Economics as both a cause and cure for environmental destruction.

ECON 123.     Resource Economics. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): ECON 1B and MATH 24 or MATH 26A or MATH 30 with a minimum "C" grade.


Analyzes the economic based problem of exhaustion in both renewable and non-renewable resources. Emphasis is given to the optimal use of these resources over time and the effects that various market and non-market factors have on their future availability.

ECON 130.     Public Finance. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): ECON 1A, ECON 1B, and MATH 24 or MATH 26A or MATH 30 with a minimum "C" grade; ECON 100B recommended.


Economic analysis of the public sector and its impact on the allocation of resources and the distribution of income. Emphasis given to the economics of government expenditure and taxation.

ECON 132.     State and Local Government Finance. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): ECON 1A, ECON 1B, and MATH 24 or MATH 26A or MATH 30 with a minimum "C" grade.


Analysis of the economics of state and local government finance, with an emphasis on California's fiscal system.

ECON 135.     Money and Banking. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): ECON 1A and MATH 24 or MATH 26A or MATH 30 with a minimum "C" grade.


Examines the role of financial markets, the banking system, and the Federal Reserve System in the economy. Included are an introduction to present value and the behavior of interest rates, analysis of money creation, and evaluation of monetary policy.

ECON 138.     Monetary and Fiscal Policy. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): ECON 1A, STAT 1, and MATH 24 or MATH 26A or MATH 30 with a minimum "C" grade; ECON 100A and ECON 140 recommended.


Analyzes the policies of central banks and fiscal authorities as they relate to the stability and growth of the macroeconomy. Examines the theoretical and empirical literature regarding the conduct of monetary and fiscal policy and applies the tools of economic analysis to understand macroeconomic policy debates.

ECON 140.     Quantitative Economic Analysis. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): ECON 1A, ECON 1B, STAT 1, and MATH 24 or MATH 26A or MATH 30 with a minimum "C" grade.


Examination of the basics of conducting quantitative economic analysis. Included are basic concepts and methods of data analysis and research. Students will examine economic data using spreadsheets, will develop presentation skills, and be introduced to career opportunities.

ECON 141.     Introduction to Econometrics. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): ECON 1A, ECON 1B, ECON 140, and MATH 24 or MATH 26A or MATH 30 with a minimum "C" grade; ECON 100A or ECON 100B recommended.


Covers the basics of regression analysis, estimation, and forecasting.

ECON 145.     Economic Research Methods. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): ECON 100A, ECON 100B, ECON 140 with a minimum "C" grade; GWAR certification before Fall 09, WPJ score of 70+, or at least a C- in ENGL 109 M/W.


Covers the basics of conducting applied economic research: the selection of topic, literature survey, choice of research method, formulation of hypothesis, testing of hypothesis using empirical analysis, and summary and conclusions. Designed to enhance the students ability to integrate economic theory, quantitative research skills, and research.

ECON 150.     Labor Economics. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): ECON 1A, ECON 1B, and MATH 24 or MATH 26A or MATH 30 with a minimum "C" grade.


Economic analysis of labor markets, with special reference to employment, wage determination, and the role of government.

ECON 152.     Economics of Education. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): ECON 1B and MATH 24 or MATH 26A or MATH 30 with a minimum "C" grade.


Introduction to the various aspects of the economics of education. Applies the tools of economic analysis to education policy and problem solving. Topics include cost-benefit analysis of education, the signaling vs. human capital debate, race and gender issues in education, education production functions, and financing education at the elementary, secondary, and post-secondary levels. Emphasis placed on individual and social choice in education.

ECON 153.     Health Economics. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): ECON 1B and MATH 24 or MATH 26A or MATH 30 with a minimum "C" grade.


Introduction to the field of health economics. Applies the tools of economics to the production of health and health care. Special emphasis on health care institutions, the role of industry, health care reform, and the role of government, in addition to the public provision of care to the disadvantaged.

ECON 160.     Industrial Organization. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): ECON 1B and MATH 24 or MATH 26A or MATH 30 with a minimum "C" grade.


Analyzes firm decision-making in a variety of market settings. Topics include pricing and output decisions, entry and exit issues, marketing strategies, horizontal mergers, vertical integration, technological change, and U.S. antitrust policy.

ECON 161.     Fundamentals of Game Theory. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): ECON 1B, STAT 1, and MATH 24 or MATH 26A or MATH 30 with a minimum "C" grade.


An analysis of strategic games with sequential or simultaneous moves under complete information and uncertainty. Discussion of theory and techniques is combined with examination of specific classes of games and their application to real-world examples such as markets, voting, auctions, and international relations

ECON 162.     Energy Economics. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): ECON 1B and MATH 24 or MATH 26A or MATH 30 with a minimum "C" grade.


Analyzes the structure, conduct, and consequences of domestic and international energy markets. Particular emphasis on regulated industries including petroleum, electrical, and other power sources. The economic impact on energy markets of emerging technology is examined.

ECON 170.     Public Economics and Regulation. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): ECON 1B and MATH 24 or MATH 26A or MATH 30 with a minimum "C" grade.


Examination of government regulation of industry in the North American context: transportation, communication, energy, and other industries. Issues include deregulation, public ownership, pricing, and investment.

ECON 180.     Urban Economics. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): ECON 1B and MATH 24 or MATH 26A or MATH 30 with a minimum "C" grade.


Economic analysis and appraisal of models of urban development. Includes consideration of the rise of cities, land use, unemployment, poverty, housing, urban renewal, transportation, and the local public sector.

ECON 181.     Economics of Racism. 3 Units

General Education Area/Graduation Requirement: Race & Ethnicity Graduation Requirement (RE), GE AREA D


Economic analysis of the origins and development of racism, focusing mainly on its impact in the U.S. Differing theoretical explanations surrounding racism will be compared and evaluated.

ECON 184.     Women and the Economy. 3 Units


Investigation of the current economic status of women in the U.S., of past and present economic discrimination experienced by women in the labor market, of the historical reasons for that discrimination and of the means and methods of ending that discrimination.

ECON 186.     Sports Economics. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): ECON 1B and MATH 24 or MATH 26A or MATH 30 with a minimum "C" grade.


Applies the essential economic concepts and develops them with examples and applications from the sports industry. Covers basic economic concepts: economic principles, supply and demand, perfect competition, and monopoly behavior. It also applies these concepts to a variety of topics: the public finance of sports franchises, the costs/benefits of a sports franchise to a city, labor markets and labor relations, discrimination, and amateurism and college sports.

ECON 189.     Economics at the Movies. 3 Units


Analysis of the use and treatment of economic theory and history in popular American films. Emphasis is placed on the topics of game theory, industrial organization, entrepreneurship, law and economics, labor economics, the stock market, and American economic history. The entertainment industry will also be examined from an economic perspective.

ECON 190.     International Trade. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): ECON 1A, ECON 1B and MATH 24 or MATH 26A or MATH 30 with a minimum "C" grade.


Analysis of the causes and results of trade among nations. Introduction to modern trade theory is combined with examination of trade instruments and policy analysis.

ECON 192.     International Finance. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): ECON 1A, ECON 1B and MATH 24 or MATH 26A or MATH 30 with a minimum "C" grade.


Critical examination of the theories and practices of financing trade among nations. International financial and monetary theories focus on how the world and financial system works, given globalization and international economic integration.

ECON 193.     Development Economics. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): ECON 1A, ECON 1B, and MATH 24 or MATH 26A or MATH 30 with a minimum "C" grade.


An analysis of the factors involved in the growth of economies. The focus is on the application of development economics and growth theory to the process of economic growth in developing countries. Particular attention is given to variables that explain growth, namely, technological progress, population growth, saving, trade, human capital and education, and the role of institutions.

ECON 195.     Economic Internship. 1 - 3 Units


Supervised economic-related work experience, research, or teaching assistance to provide an opportunity for the student to apply principles and theories learned in the classroom to the "real world."

Credit/No Credit

ECON 197A.     Economics Exchange Mentee. 1 Unit

Prerequisite(s): Instructor permission.


Provides opportunity for lower division students, transfer students, and newly declared majors to be mentored by more advanced upper division students or graduate students. The peer mentoring will help students meet academic deadlines, achieve academic success, become engaged in campus activities and get integrated into the Economics Department.

Note: Units may not be applied towards unit requirement of the Economics major.

Credit/No Credit

ECON 197B.     Economics Exchange Mentor. 1 - 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): Upper division or graduate student standing and instructor permission.


Provides opportunity for advanced upper division students or graduate students to mentor lower division students. The peer mentoring will help students meet academic deadlines, achieve academic success, become engaged in campus activities and be integrated into the Economics Department.

Note: Units may not be applied towards unit requirement of the Economics major; May be repeated for up to 3 units credit from ECON 197A & ECON 197B combined.

Credit/No Credit

ECON 198.     Tutoring in Economics. 1 - 3 Units


Supervised tutorials at educational institutions including Sacramento State where and when appropriate arrangements can be made. Prior approval for tutoring must be obtained from the Economics Department. Emphasis is on the development of effectiveness in the teaching of economics.

Credit/No Credit

ECON 199.     Special Problems. 1 - 3 Units


Individual projects or directed reading. Admission requires approval of the faculty sponsor and the Department Chair.

Credit/No Credit

ECON 200A.     Advanced Macroeconomic Theory. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): ECON 141 and ECON 200M.


Theories of the determinants of aggregate income, employment and prices. May be taken independently of ECON 200B.

ECON 200B.     Advanced Microeconomic Theory. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): ECON 200M.


Theories of the consumer, producer, and market structure. May be taken independently of ECON 200A.

ECON 200C.     Advanced Applied Economics. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): ECON 200A, ECON 200B, and ECON 241.


Applies empirical analysis to topics in microeconomics and macroeconomics. Topics may include stationarity, vector autoregression, vector error correction models, calibration, fixed effects, instrumental variables, multinomial logit, and duration models. Students implement these models using econometric software. Students will write an empirical paper intended to become a prospectus for the master's thesis.

ECON 200M.     Mathematics for Economists. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): ECON 100A, ECON 100B, MATH 26A.


Equips students with the mathematical techniques necessary for the study of economics and econometrics at the graduate level. Covers linear algebra, derivatives, comparative static analysis, optimization, integrals, and differential equations, with specific applications from economic and econometric theory.

ECON 204.     Business Economics. 3 Units


Intensive one-semester course covering both macroeconomics and microeconomics. Emphasis is on economic analysis and policy. Designed for graduate students who have not taken ECON 1A and ECON 1B or their equivalents.

ECON 213.     U.S. Economic Development in Historical Perspective. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): Admission to MA program in Economics.


Introduction and analysis of American economic development from a historical perspective, focusing on the trajectory of American economic development from recent advances in theoretical and empirical economics literature. Cover topics on long-term economic growth, technological change, business cycles and fluctuations, financial markets, labor markets, and economic impacts of social change.

ECON 230.     Public Finance. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): ECON 200B.


An analysis of the allocation and distribution effects of government expenditures and taxation.

ECON 238.     Monetary and Fiscal Policy. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): ECON 200A.


Analyzes the policies of central bank and fiscal authorities as they relate to full employment and stability of the national economy.

ECON 241.     Applied Econometric Analysis. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): ECON 141

Corequisite(s): ECON 200M


Applied econometric analysis with emphasis on the use of econometric techniques in economic research settings, expressing economic theory in the form of econometric models, data collection, estimation, and interpretation of results. Students work individually or as a team on a current research topic from various fields of economics preselected or approved by instructor.

ECON 251.     Urban Problems, Economics and Public Policy. 3 Units


Historical development, economics and possible policy solutions of the most pressing problems facing central cities and urban areas in the U.S. are presented. Problems discussed include poverty, crime, urban abandonment/suburban sprawl, edge cities, deteriorating infrastructures, and fiscal stress.

Cross Listed: PPA 251; only one may be counted for credit.

ECON 260.     Industrial Organization and Performance. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): Classified graduate status in Economics or instructor permission.


A modern analysis of industry structure, conduct, and performance. Emphasis is placed on the use of game theory to address firm behavior, including price and output decisions, entry and exit, horizontal mergers, technological change, and marketing issues.

ECON 263.     Food Economics. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): Graduate standing or instructor permission.


Introduction to advanced economic theory and econometric methods applied to the economics of food with emphasis on food consumption and the complexity of individual food choices. Utilizing cost-benefit analyses and concepts like constrained utility maximization, household production, opportunity costs of time, and information search, implications for a global food system will be derived. We will apply learned concepts to health and environmental concerns by discussing the recent applied economics and policy evaluation literature.

ECON 265.     Cost Benefit Analysis. 3 Units


Examination of the theories, foundations, and philosophies of economic welfare. Specifically, the basic techniques of cost-benefit analysis will be presented and applied to various policy issues.

ECON 290.     International Trade. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): Classified graduate status in Economics or instructor permission.


Analysis of modern trade theories, their empirical relevance, and the role of multinational firms in the evolution of international trade patterns. Discussion focuses on theoretical and empirical evaluation of trade policy instruments. Various trade agreements are also discussed in the context of economic integration and globalization. Attention is also given to foreign direct investment as a vehicle of globalization and the challenges it poses to both multinational firms and host countries.

ECON 295.     Economic Internship. 1 - 3 Units


Supervised work experience or research on economic topics in government, financial, business, charitable or other kinds of institutions to provide an opportunity for the student to apply principles and theories learned in the classroom to the "real world." Partial supervision may be supplied by persons in the institution under study.

Credit/No Credit

ECON 298.     Tutoring In Economics. 1 - 3 Units


Supervised tutorials at educational institutions including Sacramento State where and when appropriate arrangements can be made. Prior approval for tutoring must be obtained from the Economics Department. Emphasis is on the development of effectiveness in the teaching of economics.

Credit/No Credit

ECON 299.     Special Problems. 1 - 3 Units


Individual projects or directed reading. Admission requires approval of the faculty sponsor and the Department Chair.

Credit/No Credit

ECON 500.     Master's Thesis. 3 Units

Prerequisite(s): Advanced to candidacy and chair permission of his/her thesis committee.


Completion of a thesis approved for the Master's degree. Should be taken in final semester prior to the completion of all requirements for the degree.